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Volume 13, Number 6—June 2007

Research

Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli from Humans and Poultry Products, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2002–2004

James R. Johnson*†Comments to Author , Mark R. Sannes*†1, Cynthia Croy*†, Brian Johnston*†, Connie Clabots*†, Michael A. Kuskowski*†, Jeff Bender‡, Kirk E. Smith§, Patricia L. Winokur¶#, and Edward A. Belongia**
Author affiliations: *Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; †University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; ‡University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA; §Minnesota Department of Health, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA; ¶University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; #Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; **Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, Wisconsin, USA;

Main Article

Table 1

Bacterial traits by source and antimicrobial drug resistance in 931 Escherichia coli isolates from human feces and poultry products, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2002–2004*

Trait† Prevalence, no. (%)
p value‡
Total 
(n = 931) Human, susceptible (n = 460) Human, resistant 
(n = 70) Poultry 
(n = 401) HS vs. HR HS vs. all poultry HR vs. all poultry
Group A 252 (27) 96 (21) 23 (33) 133 (33) ≤0.001
Group B1 186 (20) 79 (17) 11 (16) 96 (24)
Group B2 234 (25) 178 (39) 13 (19) 43 (11) ≤0.001 ≤0.001
Group D 259 (28) 107 (23) 23 (33) 129 (32) ≤0.01
papA 124 (13) 98 (21) 6 (9) 20 (5) ≤0.001
papC 163 (18) 100 (22) 10 (14) 53 (13) ≤0.001
sfa/focDE 69 (7) 65 (14) 2 (3) 2 (0.5) ≤0.01 ≤0.001
afa/draBC 19 (2) 14 (3) 5 (7) 0 (0) ≤0.001 ≤0.001
iutA 361 (39) 93 (20) 32 (46) 236 (59) ≤0.001§ ≤0.001§
kpsM II 288 (31) 195 (42) 23 (33) 70 (17) ≤0.001 ≤0.01
hlyD 71 (8) 64 (14) 2 (3) 4 (1) ≤0.01 ≤0.001
ExPEC 249 (27) 147 (32) 20 (29) 82 (20) ≤0.001

*Data are for the total population. Susceptible, susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid (quinolones), and ceftriaxone or ceftazidime (extended-spectrum cephalosporins), regardless of other possible drug resistance; resistant, resistant to 1 of the following: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid (quinolones), and ceftriaxone or ceftazidime (extended-spectrum cephalosporins).
†Groups A, B1, B2, and D, major E. coli phylogenetic groups; papA and papC, P fimbriae structural subunit and assembly; sfa/focDE, S and F1C fimbriae; afa/draBC, Dr binding adhesins; iutA, aerobactin system; kpsM II, group 2 capsule; hlyD, α-hemolysin; ExPEC, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli defined by presence of ≥2 of papA and/or papC (counted as 1), sfa/focDE, afa/draBC, iutA, and kpsM II.
‡By Fisher exact test. Values are shown only where p≤0.01. HS, susceptible isolates from humans; HR, resistant isolates from humans. Because drug-resistant and drug-susceptible poultry isolates showed only 1 significant difference (for iutA), they were combined into an all-poultry group.
§Negative association.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: Park Nicollet Clinic, Saint Louis Park, Minnesota, USA

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