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Volume 13, Number 6—June 2007

Research

Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Escherichia coli from Humans and Poultry Products, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2002–2004

James R. Johnson*†Comments to Author , Mark R. Sannes*†1, Cynthia Croy*†, Brian Johnston*†, Connie Clabots*†, Michael A. Kuskowski*†, Jeff Bender‡, Kirk E. Smith§, Patricia L. Winokur¶#, and Edward A. Belongia**
Author affiliations: *Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; †University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; ‡University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA; §Minnesota Department of Health, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA; ¶University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; #Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; **Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, Wisconsin, USA;

Main Article

Table 2

Bacterial traits by source and antimicrobial drug resistance in 243 extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) isolates from human feces and poultry products, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2002–2004*

Trait†‡§ Prevalence, no. (%)
p value¶
Total
(n = 243) Human, susceptible
(n = 144) Human, resistant
(n = 20) Poultry
(n = 79) HS vs. HR HS vs. all poultry HR vs. all poultry
Group A 20 (8) 5 (3) 5 (25) 10 (13) ≤0.01#
Group B1 7 (3) 0 0 7 (9) ≤0.001# ≤0.001#
Group B2 154 (63) 125 (87) 6 (30) 23 (29) ≤0.001
Group D 62 (26) 14 (10) 9 (45) 39 (49) ≤0.001#
papA 117 (48) 97 (67) 7 (35) 13 (16) ≤0.01 ≤0.001
F10 allele 38 (16) 32 (10) 5 (25) 1 (1) ≤0.001 ≤0.001
F16 allele 12 (5) 5 (3) 5 (25) 2 (3) ≤0.01# ≤0.01
F48 allele 21 (9) 21 (15) 0 0 ≤0.001
papG III 44 (18) 44 (31) 0 0 ≤0.01 ≤0.001
sfa/focDE 62 (26) 61 (42) 1 (5) 0 ≤0.001 ≤0.001
sfaS 35 (14) 33 (23) 1 (5) 1 (1) ≤0.001
focG 13 (5) 12 (8) 1 (5) 0 ≤0.01
afa/draBC 15 (6) 11 (8) 4 (20) 0 ≤0.01 ≤0.001
iha 52 (22) 38 (26) 16 (80) 0 ≤0.001# ≤0.001 ≤0.001
hra 108 (44) 67 (47) 2 (10) 39 (49) ≤0.001 ≤0.01#
cnf1 54 (22) 51 (35) 2 (10) 1 (1) ≤0.001
hlyD 67 (28) 67 (28) 2 (10) 2 (3) ≤0.01 ≤0.001
hlyF 73 (30) 28 (19) 1 (5) 44 (57) ≤0.001# ≤0.001#
sat 61 (25) 46 (32) 15 (75) 0 (0) ≤0.001# ≤0.001# ≤0.001#
pic 34 (14) 30 (21) 0 4 (5) ≤0.01
tsh 131 (54) 113 (78) 3 (15) 15 (19) ≤0.001 ≤0.001
astA 48 (20) 7 (5) 1 (5) 40 (51) ≤0.001# ≤0.001#
iutA 162 (67) 67 (47) 18 (90) 77 (97) ≤0.001#
iroN 118 (49) 78 (54) 3 (15) 37 (47) ≤0.001 ≤0.01#
fyuA 199 (82) 138 (96) 17 (85) 44 (56) ≤0.001
kpsM II 215 (89) 137 (95) 16 (80) 62 (78) ≤0.001
K5 kpsM 35 (14) 28 (19) 4 (20) 3 (4) ≤0.001
iss 69 (28) 23 (16) 2 (10) 44 (56) ≤0.001# ≤0.001#
usp 144 (59) 127 (88) 6 (30) 11 (14) ≤0.001 ≤0.001
H7 fliC 52 (21) 52 (36) 0 0 ≤0.001 ≤0.001
ompT 184 (76) 131 (91) 9 (50) 40 (51) ≤0.01 ≤0.001
malX 152 (63) 134 (93) 7 (35) 1 (14) ≤0.001 ≤0.001

*Susceptible, susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid (quinolones), and ceftriaxone or ceftazidime (extended-spectrum cephalosporins), regardless of other possible drug resistance; resistant, resistant to >1 of the following: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid (quinolones), and ceftriaxone or ceftazidime (extended-spectrum cephalosporins).
†Traits are shown that showed p≤0.01 for ≥1 comparison each. Groups A, B1, B2, and D, major E. coli phylogenetic groups; papA, P fimbriae structural subunit with variants F10, F16, and F48; papG III, variant P adhesin; sfa/focDE, S and F1C fimbriae; sfaS, S fimbriae; focG, F1C fimbriae; afa/draBC, Dr binding adhesins; iha, adhesin-siderophore receptor; hra, pathogenicity island marker; cnf1, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1; hlyD, α-hemolysin; hlyF, variant hemolysin; sat, secreted autotransporter toxin; pic, autotransporter protease; tsh, autotransporter hemagglutinin; astA, enteroaggregative E. coli toxin; iutA, aerobactin system; iroN, siderophore receptor; fyuA, yersiniabactin receptor; kpsM II, group 2 capsule; K5 kpsM, kpsM II variant; iss, increased serum survival; usp, uropathogenic-specific protein; H7 fliC, flagellar variant; ompT, outer membrane protease; malX, pathogenicity island marker.
‡Traits that did not show p<0.01 but were detected in ≥1 isolate each include the F7–2, F8, F9, F11, F12, F12, F14, and F15 papA alleles, papC (P fimbriae assembly), papEF (P fimbriae tip pilins), papG alleles I and II (both internal and flanking sequences), afaE8 (variant Dr binding adhesin), gafD (G fimbriae), F17 fimbriae, fimH (type 1 fimbriae), clpG (adhesin), cdtB (cytolethal distending toxin B), ireA (siderophore receptor), kpsM III (group 3 capsule), K1 and K2 kpsM II variants, cvaC (microcin V), ibeA (invasion of brain endothelium), and rfc (O4 lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis).
§Traits not detected in any isolate include F7–1 and F536 papA alleles and K15 kpsM II variant.
¶By Fisher exact test. Values are shown only where p≤0.01. HS, susceptible isolates from humans; HR, drug-resistant isolates from humans. Because drug-resistant and drug-susceptible poultry isolates showed no significant differences, they were combined into an all-poultry group.
#Negative association.

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1Current affiliation: Park Nicollet Clinic, Saint Louis Park, Minnesota, USA

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