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Volume 13, Number 7—July 2007

Research

Antiretroviral Therapy during Tuberculosis Treatment and Marked Reduction in Death Rate of HIV-Infected Patients, Thailand1

Somsak Akksilp*, Opart Karnkawinpong*, Wanpen Wattanaamornkiat*, Daranee Viriyakitja†, Patama Monkongdee‡, Walya Sitti*, Dhanida Rienthong†, Taweesap Siraprapasiri†‡, Charles D. Wells§, Jordan W. Tappero‡§, and Jay K. Varma†§Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Ministry of Public Health, Ubon-ratchathani, Thailand; †Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; ‡Thailand Ministry of Public Health–Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand; §Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA;

Main Article

Table 3

Univariate analysis of risk factors for death among HIV-infected TB patients with outcomes of cured, completed, failed, or died, stratified by all patients versus pulmonary, smear-positive patients, Ubon-ratchathani, February 2003 through January 2004*

CharacteristicAll TB patients (N = 286)
Smear-positive TB patients (n = 104)
Died, no./total (%)RR (95% CI)Died, no./total (%)RR (95% CI)
Sex
Male69/193 (36)1.2 (0.8–1.6)33/72 (46)2.3 (1.1–4.7)
Female30/97 (31)Ref7/35 (20)Ref
Age
<18 y4/19 (21)0.6 (0.2–1.4)0/1 (0)0 (0–0)
18–34 y60/168 (36)Ref26/60 (43)Ref
>35 y35/103 (34)1.0 (0.7–1.3)14/46 (30)0.7 (0.4–1.2)
Type, location of TB
Sputum smear-positive, pulmonary40/107 (37)RefNANA
Sputum smear-negative, pulmonary38/96 (40)1.1 (0.8–1.5)NANA
Extrapulmonary21/87 (24)0.7 (0.4–1.0)NANA
CD4 count (cells/mm3)
>2001/22 (5)Ref0/8 (0)Ref
100–1995/33 (15)3.3 (0.4–26.6)2/12 (17)Undefined
50–999/35 (26)5.7 (0.8–41.6)1/10 (10)Undefined
<5022/92 (24)5.3 (0.8–37.0)9/34 (27)Undefined
Unknown62/108 (57)12.6 (1.9–86.3)28/43 (65)Undefined
Co-trimoxazole during TB treatment
Received57/208 (27)0.5 (0.4–0.7)21/71 (30)0.6 (0.4–0.9)
Did not receive42/82 (51)Ref19/36 (53)Ref
Antiretroviral therapy before or during TB treatment
Received5/71 (7)0.2 (0.1–0.4)1/23 (4)0.1 (0.0–0.7)
Did not receive94/219 (43)Ref39/84 (46)Ref
Sputum culture†
Culture positive18/60 (30)Ref18/59 (31)Ref
Not culture positive81/230 (35)1.2 (0.8–1.8)‡22/48 (46)1.5 (0.9–2.5)‡
Culture negative21/60 (35)1.2 (0.7–2.0)‡9/20 (45)1.5 (0.8–2.7)‡

*TB, tuberculosis; RR, relative risk; CI, confidence interval; Ref, referent; NA, not applicable.
†”Culture positive” includes all patients with a sputum culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). “Not culture positive” includes any patients without a culture positive for MTB, regardless of whether they had a specimen sent for culture or not. “Culture negative” includes only patients with a sputum culture negative for MTB.
‡Compared with culture positive.

Main Article

Data from this manuscript have been presented in part at the 36th UNION World Conference on Lung Health, Paris, October 2005, and the 15th Annual International AIDS Conference, Bangkok, July 2004.

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