Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 13, Number 8—August 2007

Dispatch

Waddlia chondrophila, a Potential Agent of Human Fetal Death

David Baud*†, Vincent Thomas*, Aliaa Arafa†, Lesley Regan†, and Gilbert Greub*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; †St Mary’s Hospital, London, UK;

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of study patients according to miscarriage history*

Characteristics Controls (n = 169), 
no. (%) Sporadic miscarriages 
(n = 69), no. (%, p value†) Recurrent miscarriages
(n = 200), no. (%, p value†)
Age, y
Median (IQR, p value†) 30.4 (25–35) 31.7 (27–36, 0.18) 35.4 (31–39, <0.001)
No. pregnancies
1 90 (53.3) 32 (46.4) 0
2 46 (27.2) 19 (27.5, 0.67‡) 0 (0, <0.001‡)
>2 33 (19.5) 18 (26.1) 200 (100)
Mean (SD, p value†)
1.8 (1.1)

2.1 (1.5, 0.23)

5.2 (3, <0.001)
Parity
0 0 (0) 49 (71) 113 (56.5)
1 115 (68.1) 11 (15.9, <0.001‡) 59 (29.5, <0.001‡)
2 31 (18.3) 4 (5.8) 19 (9.5)
>2 23 (13.6) 5 (7.3) 9 (4.5)
Mean (SD, p value†)
1.54 (0.95)

0.52 (1.01, <0.001)

0.64 (0.9, <0.001)
Miscarriages
Early (<12 weeks) 0 52 (75.4, <0.001) 196 (98, <0.001)
Late (>12 weeks) 0 13 (18.9, <0.001) 51 (25.5, <0.001)
Stillbirth (>24 weeks) 0 4 (5.8, <0.001) 11 (5.5, 0.002)
Alive child
169 (100)

21 (30.4, <0.001)

78 (39, <0.001)
Ethnicity
White 80 (47.3) 34 (49.3, 0.79) 132 (66, <0.001)
Black 35 (20.7) 10 (14.5, 0.27) 22 (11, 0.01)
Asian 31 (18.3) 18 (26.1, 0.18) 34 (17, 0.74)
Other
22 (13)

6 (8.7, 0.35)

8 (4, 0.002)
Contact with animals 29 (17.2) 11 (15.9, 0.82) 70 (35, <0.001)
Cat 18 (10.7) 5 (7.3, 0.42) 37 (18.5, 0.035)
Dog 15 (8.9) 6 (8.7, 0.97) 28 (14, 0.13)
Fish 1 (0.6) 0 (0, 1) 8 (4, 0.043)
Rodents 0 2 (2.9, 0.08) 7 (3.5, 0.017)
Other
3 (1.8)

0 (0, 0.63)

12 (6, 0.041)
Chlamydia trachomatis (IgG titer>50) 15 (8.9) 9 (13, 0.33) 39 (19.5, 0.004)
Positive serology for Waddlia spp.
IgG titer >64 12 (7.1) 22 (31.9, <0.001) 66 (33, <0.001)
IgG titer >128 6 (3.6) 10 (14.5, 0.002) 29 (14.5, <0.001)
Western blot Waddlia IgG
<1 band 12 (7.1) 22 (31.9, <0.001) 63 (31.5, <0.001)
<2 bands 6 (3.6) 15 (21.7, <0.001) 51 (25.5, <0.001)
<3 bands 3 (1.8) 9 (13, <0.001) 28 (14, <0.001)
<2 specific bands§ 1 (0.6) 9 (13, <0.001) 22 (11, <0.001)

*Controls, women with uneventful pregnancies; IQR, interquartile range.
†Compared with control group.
‡p value for ordered categories (Pearson χ2 test).
§According to Waddlia hyperimmune mouse serum, bands at 61-, 55-, 53-, 45-, 41-, 38-, and 30-kDa are considered specific for Waddlia spp.

Main Article

TOP