Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 13, Number 9—September 2007

Research

Spectrum of Infection and Risk Factors for Human Monkeypox, United States, 2003

Mary G. Reynolds*Comments to Author , Whitni B. Davidson*, Aaron T. Curns*, Craig S. Conover†, Gregory Huhn*‡, Jeffrey P. Davis§, Mark Wegner§, Donita R. Croft§, Alexandra Newman*§, Nkolika N. Obiesie¶, Gail R. Hansen¶, Patrick L. Hays¶, Pamela Pontones#, Brad Beard#, Robert Teclaw#, James F. Howell#, Zachary Braden*, Robert C. Holman*, Kevin L. Karem*, and Inger K. Damon*
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Illinois Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA; ‡Rush University, Chicago, Illinois, USA; §Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; ¶Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Topeka, Kansas, USA; #Indiana State Department of Health, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA;

Main Article

Table 2

Characteristics of monkeypox case-patients and controls selected from the population of persons exposed, monkeypox virus outbreak, United States, 2003

Characteristic Study classifications, no. (%)
Case-patients Case-patients infected but not diseased Controls
State
Illinois 8 (26.7) 1 (33.3) 8 (28.6)
Indiana 10 (33.3) 1 (33.3) 17 (60.7)
Kansas 1 (3.3) 0 0
Wisconsin 11 (36.7) 1 (33.3) 3 (10.7)
Age, y
<18 10 (33.3) 0 7 (25.0)
>18 20 (66.7) 3 (100) 21 (75.0)
History of smallpox vaccination
Yes 6 (20.0) 3 (100) 15 (53.6)
No
24 (80.0)
0
13 (46.4)
Setting in which exposure occurred*
Home 18 (60.0) 1 (33.3) 17 (60.7)
Neighbor’s home 3 (10.0) 0 6 (21.4)
Pet store 2 (6.7) 1 (33.3) 1 (3.6)
Veterinary clinic 7 (23.3) 1 (33.3) 4 (14.3)
Exposure source†‡
Prairie dog (PD) 30 (100) 3 (100) 28 (100)
PD and African animal 1 (3.3) 1 (33.3) 2 (7.1)
PD and other animal 1 (3.3) 0 2 (7.1)
Only other animal
0
0
0
Symptoms postexposure
Fever 28§ (93.3) 2 (66.7) 4 (14.3)
Rash 30 (100) 1 (33.3) 7 (25.0)
Lymphadenopathy 20 (66.7) 1 (33.3) 4 (14.3)
Mouth sores 8 (26.7) 0 1 (3.6)
Conjunctivitis 4 (13.3) 0 0
Cough
17 (56.7)
0
2 (7.1)
Total 30 3 28

*Indicates principal setting for exposure.
†Reported exposures pertain to animals with laboratory-confirmed monkeypox infections (15) or ones that had lesion-producing illnesses plus prior exposure to a confirmed infected animal. African animals included dormice, giant Gambian rats, jerboas, hedgehogs, striped mice, and pygmy mice.
‡Includes all reported exposures; categories not mutually exclusive.
§Self-reported information for fever was indicated as unknown or was missing for 2 persons who had laboratory-confirmed monkeypox infections.

Main Article

TOP