Volume 14, Number 1—January 2008
THEME ISSUE International Polar Year
Sindbis Virus Infection in Resident Birds, Migratory Birds, and Humans, Finland
Satu Kurkela*† , Osmo Rätti‡, Eili Huhtamo*, Nathalie Y. Uzcátegui*, J. Pekka Nuorti§, Juha Laakkonen*¶, Tytti Manni*, Pekka Helle#, Antti Vaheri*†, and Olli Vapalahti*†**
Author affiliations: *Haartman Institute at the University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; †Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki, Finland; ‡University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland; §National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland; ¶Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa, Finland; #Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Oulu, Finland; **Basic Veterinary Sciences at the University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;
Figure 1. A) Map of Finland with the hospital district divisions. Migratory bird samples were collected from Lågskär, Tauvo, Jurmo, and Kokkola. B) Mean seroprevalence (1999–2003) of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in human population (according to place of treatment) in the hospital districts of Finland. N/A, not available. C) Average annualized incidence (1995–2003) of SINV infection in human population (according to place of treatment) in the hospital districts of Finland. D) Prevalence of SINV hemagluttination-inhibition antibodies in resident grouse in Finland. The left bars represent the year 2003 and right bars 2004. The bars represent the total number of samples available; the black areas, the number of seropositive samples. *In 2003 in East Savo, the only sample collected was seropositive.
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