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Volume 14, Number 1—January 2008

Research

Experimental Infection of Swans and Geese with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) of Asian Lineage

Justin D. Brown*Comments to Author , David E. Stallknecht*, and David E. Swayne†
Author affiliations: *College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA; †Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, USA;

Main Article

Table 1

Disease, death, and pathologic data from 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by intranasal inoculation and contact with infected birds*

Species Disease rate (d to onset) Duration, d (range)† Mortality rate (d to death) Virus distribution
Black swan 5/5 (1–2) <1 (0–1) 5/5 (2–3) Blood vessels
Trumpeter swan 5/5 (2) 4 (3–5) 5/5 (4–6) Brain, skin, multiple organs‡
Whooper swan 4/4 (2–4) 3 (1–5) 4/4 (4–4) Brain, skin, multiple organs
Mute swan 5/5 (5–7) <1 (0–1) 5/5 (5–8) Brain, skin, multiple organs
Cackling goose 4/4 (3–7) 3 (1–9) 3/4 (4–8) Brain, pancreas, liver, adrenal gland
Bar-headed goose 5/5 (3–7) 4 (1–8) 2/5 (6–7) Brain

*Exposure date for each species was adjusted so that 0 d postcontact (when the contact birds were placed into the cage with the inoculated birds) was assumed to be equivalent to 0 d postinoculation.
†Average duration of detectable clinical signs.
‡Adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, lungs, heart, spleen, kidneys, air sacs, trachea, intestinal parasympathetic ganglia, and gastrointestinal tract.

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