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Volume 14, Number 1—January 2008
THEME ISSUE
International Polar Year

Research

International Circumpolar Surveillance System for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, 1999–2005

Michael G. Bruce*Comments to Author , Shelley L. Deeks†1, Tammy Zulz*, Dana Bruden*, Christine Navarro†, Marguerite Lovgren‡, Louise Jette§, Karl G. Kristinsson¶, Gudrun Sigmundsdottir¶, Knud Brinkløv Jensen#, Oistein Lovoll**, J. Pekka Nuorti††, Elja Herva‡‡, Anders Nystedt§§, Anders Sjostedt¶¶, Anders Koch##, Thomas W. Hennessy*, Alan J. Parkinson*, and the International Circumpolar Surveillance System for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Working Group
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska, USA; †Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; ‡National Centre for Streptococcus, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; §Quebec Public Health Laboratory, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada; ¶Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; #Institution of the Chief Medical Officer, Nuuk, Greenland; **Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; ††National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland; ‡‡National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland; §§Sunderby Hospital, Lulea, Sweden; ¶¶Umea University, Umea, Sweden; ##Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark;

Main Article

Table 8

Risk factors and medical conditions in persons >18 years of age with invasive pneumococcal disease*

Factor or conditionAlaska, 1999–2005, no. (%)Northern Canada, 1999–2005, no. (%)
Cigarette smoking223 (44)54 (40)
Alcohol abuse†201 (39)50 (37)
Chronic lung disease/asthma139 (27)26 (19)
Diabetes mellitus71 (14)22 (16)
Immunosuppressive therapy35 (7)5 (4)
Injection drug use11 (2)3 (2)
Asplenia
9 (2)
4 (3)
Total509 (100)135 (100)

*Risk factors and medical conditions are not mutually exclusive. Each case may have >1 condition reported. Data were not available for Greenland, Iceland, Norway, northern Sweden, or Finland.
†Alcohol abuse was noted in the chart.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: National Centre for Immunisation, Research and Surveillance, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia

2The International Circumpolar Surveillance System for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Working Group: Jean-François Proulx (Department of Public Health, Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada); Robert Carlin (Department of Public Health, Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay, Montreal, Quebec, Canada); Andre Corriveau, Cheryl Case (Northwest Territory Department of Health and Social Services, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada); Bryce Larke, Colleen Hemsley (Yukon Health and Social Services, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada); Isaac Sobel, Carolina Palacios (Nunavut Department of Health, Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada); Gregory Tyrell, Marguerite Lovgren (National Centre for Streptococcus, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada); Alisa Reasonover, Michael G. Bruce, Tammy Zulz, Dana Bruden, Thomas W. Hennessy, Alan J. Parkinson (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska, USA); Shelley L. Deeks (National Centre for Immunisation, Research and Surveillance, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia); Christine Navarro (Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada); Louise Jette (Quebec Public Health Laboratory, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada); Karl Kristinsson, Gudrun Sigmundsdottir (Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland); Knud Brinkløv Jensen (Institution of the Chief Medical Officer, Nuuk, Greenland); Oistein Lovoll (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway); J. Pekka Nuorti (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland); Elja Herva (National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland); Anders Sjostedt (Umea University, Umea, Sweden); Anders Nystedt (Sunderby Hospital, Lulea, Sweden); and Anders Koch (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark)

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