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Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008

CME ACTIVITY

Antimicrobial Drug Use and Resistance in Europe

Nienke van de Sande-Bruinsma, Hajo GrundmannComments to Author , Didier Verloo, Edine Tiemersma, Jos Monen, Herman Goossens, Matus Ferech, and the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System and European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Project Groups 1
Author affiliations: National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (N. van de Sande-Bruinsma, H. Grundmann, E. Tiemersma, J. Monen); University Medical Centre, Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (H. Grundmann); Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Ukkel, Belgium (D. Verloo); University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium (H. Goossens, M. Ferech);

Main Article

Figure 1

Total antimicrobial drug consumption in ambulatory care in defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) by antimicrobial class in 21 European countries in 2004. See Table 1 footnote for country designations.

Figure 1. Total antimicrobial drug consumption in ambulatory care in defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) by antimicrobial class in 21 European countries in 2004. See Table 1 footnote for country designations.

Main Article

1National representatives of these 2 project groups in 2005 were as follows: Austria: H. Mittermayer, S. Metz, W. Koller (European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System [EARSS]); Belgium: E. Hendrickx (EARSS), H. Goossens; Bulgaria: B. Markova; Croatia: A. Tambic-Andrasevic, Igor Francetic (European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption [ESAC]), S. Kalenic (EARSS); Cyprus: D. Bagatzouni (EARSS); Czech Republic: P. Dvorak (ESAC), P. Urbaskova (EARSS); Denmark: D. Monnet, A. Anker Nielsen (ESAC); Estonia: P. Naaber (EARSS); Finland: P. Huovinen (ESAC), P. Paakkari (ESAC), O. Lyytikainen (EARSS), A. Nissinen (EARSS); France: P. Maugendre (ESAC), D. Guillemot (ESAC), B. Coignard, (EARSS), V. Jarlier (EARSS); Germany: W. Kern (ESAC), H. Schroeder (ESAC), W. Witte (EARSS), K. Heckenbach (EARSS); Greece: H. Giamarellou (ESAC), A. Antoniadou (ESAC), A. Tsakris (EARSS), A. Vatopoulos (EARSS); Hungary: G. Ternak (ESAC), M. Fuzi (EARSS); Iceland: K. Kristinsson; Ireland: E. Smyth (ESAC), R. Cunney (ESAC), D. Igoe (EARSS), O. Murphy (EARSS); Israel: R. Raz (EARSS); Italy: G. Cornaglia, A. Pantosti (EARSS), P. D’Ancona (EARSS); Latvia: S. Berzina (ESAC), A. Balode (EARSS); Lithuania: R. Valenteliene (ESAC), J. Miciulevicience; Luxembourg: R. Hemmer, M. Bruch (ESAC); Malta: M. Borg, P. Zarb (ESAC); the Netherlands: R. Janknegt (ESAC), M. Filius (ESAC), H. de Neeling (EARSS), E. Tiemermsa, J Degener (EARSS); Norway: H. Salvesen Blix (ESAC), A. Hoiby (EARSS), G. Simonsen (EARSS); Poland: W. Hryniewicz, P. Grzesiowski; Portugal: L. Caldeira (ESAC), M. Canica (EARSS); Romania: I. Codita; Slovakia: V. Foltan (ESAC), T. Tesar (ESAC), L. Langsadl (EARSS); Slovenia: M. Cizman (ESAC), M. Mueller-Premru (EARSS), J. Kolman (EARSS); Spain: J. Campos, F. Baquero (EARSS); Sweden: O. Cars (ESAC), G. Skoog (ESAC), B. Liljequist (EARSS), G. Kahlmeter (EARSS); Turkey: S. Unal (ESAC), D. Gür (EARSS); United Kingdom: P. Davey (ESAC), A. Johnson (EARSS), R. Hill (EARSS), H. Hughes (EARSS), M. Coyne (EARSS).

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