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Volume 14, Number 11—November 2008

Dispatch

Phylogenetics and Pathogenesis of Early Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N1), Nigeria

Comfort O. Aiki-Raji1, Patricia V. Aguilar1, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Sue Goetz, David L. Suarez, Aashish I. Jethra, Oyekanmi Nash, Christopher A.O. Adeyefa, Festus D. Adu, David Swayne, and Christopher F. BaslerComments to Author 
Author affiliations: University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria (C.O. Aiki-Raji, O. Nash, C.A.O. Adeyefa, F.D. Adu); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA (P.V. Aguilar, A.I. Jethra, C.F. Basler); US Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, USA (Y.-K. Kwon, S. Goetz, D.L. Suarez, D. Swayne);

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Figure

Experimental studies in chickens inoculated intranasally with highly pathogenic influenza A/chicken/Nigeria/228-5/2005 (H5N1) and sampled 2 days postinoculation. A) Photograph (scale bar = 1 cm) of a gross lesion, showing petechia in epicardial fat in the coronary groove. B,C) Photomicrographs (scale bars = 50 μm) of tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, showing severe histiocytic and heterophilic interstitial pneumonia with moderately interlobular edema (panel B) and pancreatic acinar epithelium (panel C). D–F) Photomicrographs (scale bars = 50 μm) of tissue sections stained immunohistochemically to demonstrate avian influenza virus nucleoprotein, showing avian influenza virus antigen in pulmonary and blood vessel endothelial cells and histiocytes (panel D), nuclei and cytoplasm of cardiac myocytes (panel E), and pancreatic acinar epithelium and islet cells (panel F).

Figure. Experimental studies in chickens inoculated intranasally with highly pathogenic influenza A/chicken/Nigeria/228-5/2005 (H5N1) and sampled 2 days postinoculation. A) Photograph (scale bar = 1 cm) of a gross lesion, showing petechia in epicardial fat in the coronary groove. B,C) Photomicrographs (scale bars = 50 μm) of tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, showing severe histiocytic and heterophilic interstitial pneumonia with moderately interlobular edema (panel B) and pancreatic acinar epithelium (panel C). D–F) Photomicrographs (scale bars = 50 μm) of tissue sections stained immunohistochemically to demonstrate avian influenza virus nucleoprotein, showing avian influenza virus antigen in pulmonary and blood vessel endothelial cells and histiocytes (panel D), nuclei and cytoplasm of cardiac myocytes (panel E), and pancreatic acinar epithelium and islet cells (panel F).

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1These authors contributed equally to this work.

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