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Volume 14, Number 12—December 2008

Research

Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons

Jeffrey S. Hall1Comments to Author , Kevin T. Bentler, Gabrielle Landolt, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Minnis, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott C. Barras, J. Jeffrey Root, John Pilon, Kristy Pabilonia, Cindy Driscoll, Dennis Slate, Heather Sullivan, and Robert G. McLean
Author affiliations: US Department of Agriculture National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (J.S. Hall, K.T. Bentler, S.A. Elmore, J.J. Root, J. Pilon, H. Sullivan, R.G. McLean); Colorado State University College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Fort Collins (G. Landolt, K. Pabilonia); Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, USA (R.B. Minnis); US Department of Agriculture National Wildlife Research Center, Kingsville, Texas, USA (T.A. Campbell); US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services, Moreley, Virginia, USA (S.C. Barras); Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Oxford, Maryland, USA (C. Driscoll); US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services, Concord, New Hampshire, USA (D. Slate)

Main Article

Table 3

Antibody production in raccoons experimentally infected with avian influenza virus (H4N8)*

Raccoon ID Day postinoculation
Final subtype†
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
264 N N N N N N N N
275 N N N N N N N N
256 N N N N N WP SP SP H4N8
253 N N N N N N N N
260‡ N NS N N N N N N
262‡ P P P P P P WP WP H4N8§
258 N N N N N N N N
257 N N N N N N N N
259 N N N N N
263 SP SP SP SP SP SP SP SP H4N8§

*Antibodies were detected by agar gel immunodiffusion, and final subtyping was determined at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (Ames, IA, USA). N, negative; WP, weakly positive; SP, strongly positive; NS, not sampled; P, positive.
†H, hemagglutinin; N, neuraminidase.
‡Uninoculated raccoons housed in adjacent cages to infected raccoons.
§These raccoons had preexisting antibodies (262:H10N7, 1:10; 263:H4N6 1:40).
¶Raccoon humanely killed 8 days postinoculation.

Main Article

1Current affiliation: US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

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