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Volume 14, Number 4—April 2008

Research

Wild Ducks as Long-Distance Vectors of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1)

Juthatip Keawcharoen*, Debby van Riel*, Geert van Amerongen*, Theo M. Bestebroer*, Walter E. Beyer*, Rob van Lavieren*, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus*, Ron A.M. Fouchier*, and Thijs Kuiken*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands;

Main Article

Figure 1

Central nervous system changes in wild ducks experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). A) Torticollis in a pochard. B) Severe multifocal encephalitis, characterized by abundant influenza virus antigen expression in neurons and glial cells and C) extensive necrosis and inflammation, in a tufted duck. D) Rare virus antigen expression in neurons and E) mild necrosis and inflammation in a gadwall that did not show neurologic signs and had only mild focal encephalitis. F) Lack of virus antigen expression and G) lack of necrosis and inflammation in brain tissue of a mallard that did not show neurologic signs. Tissues were stained either by immunohistochemistry that used a monoclonal antibody against the nucleoprotein of influenza A virus as a primary antibody (B, D, F) or with hematoxylin and eosin (C, E, G); original magnification ×100.

Figure 1. Central nervous system changes in wild ducks experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). A) Torticollis in a pochard. B) Severe multifocal encephalitis, characterized by abundant influenza virus antigen expression in neurons and glial cells and C) extensive necrosis and inflammation, in a tufted duck. D) Rare virus antigen expression in neurons and E) mild necrosis and inflammation in a gadwall that did not show neurologic signs and had only mild focal encephalitis. F) Lack of virus antigen expression and G) lack of necrosis and inflammation in brain tissue of a mallard that did not show neurologic signs. Tissues were stained either by immunohistochemistry that used a monoclonal antibody against the nucleoprotein of influenza A virus as a primary antibody (B, D, F) or with hematoxylin and eosin (C, E, G); original magnification ×100.

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