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Volume 14, Number 4—April 2008

Research

Wild Ducks as Long-Distance Vectors of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1)

Juthatip Keawcharoen*, Debby van Riel*, Geert van Amerongen*, Theo M. Bestebroer*, Walter E. Beyer*, Rob van Lavieren*, Albert D.M.E. Osterhaus*, Ron A.M. Fouchier*, and Thijs Kuiken*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands;

Main Article

Table

Health status and virus excretion of 46 wild ducks experimentally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1)

Common name (taxonomic name), 
n = 8 each No. ducks with clinical signs
No. ducks that excreted virus from*
Pharynx
Cloaca
Mild Severe Virus isolation RT-PCR Virus isolation RT-PCR
Tufted duck (Aythya fuligula)† 4 3 6 7 0 5
Eurasian pochard (Aythya ferina)† 3 1 7 7 2 5
Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) 0 0 8 8 0 5
Common teal (Anas crecca) 0 0 3 7 1 4
Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) 0 0 4 7 0 0
Gadwall (Anas strepera)
0
0

7
8

0
8
Total 7 4 35 44 3 27

*Positive result from any swab collected during the experiment. RT-PCR, reverse transcription–PCR.
†One bird removed after inoculation because of concurrent disease.

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