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Volume 14, Number 6—June 2008

Dispatch

Land Use and West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in Wild Mammals

Andrés Gómez*Comments to Author , A. Marm Kilpatrick†‡, Laura D. Kramer§, Alan P. Dupuis§, Joseph G. Maffei§, Scott J. Goetz¶, Peter P. Marra#**, Peter Daszak†, and A. Alonso Aguirre††
Author affiliations: *Columbia University, New York, New York, USA; †The Consortium for Conservation Medicine, New York; ‡University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA; §New York State Department of Health, Slingerlands, New York; ¶Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA; #Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland, USA; **National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, USA; ††Wildlife Trust, New York;

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Table 2

Logistic regression analysis of West Nile virus seroprevalence in wild mammals*

Predictor Coefficient Odds ratio (95% CI) p value
Constant –7.52 ± 2.75 0.006
Age (adult) 7.83 ± 2.97 2,508.54 (7.48–8.4 x 105) 0.008
Juvenile date of capture† 0.024 ± 0.01 1.02 (1–1.05) 0.025
Adult date of capture –0.004 ± 0.005 1 (0.99–1.01) 0.503
UI
0.015 ± 0.008
1.02 (1.0–1.03)
0.045
Species‡ 0.007
Tamias striatus –1.7 ± 0.68 0.18 (0.05–0.69) 0.012
Didelphis virginiana 0.46 ± 0.46 1.59 (0.64–3.94) 0.32
Peromyscus leucopus –1.52 ± 0.68 0.22 (0.06–0.84) 0.026
Procyon lotor 0.88 ± 0.77 2.41 (0.53–11) 0.26
Rattus norvegicus –0.7 ± 0.75 0.5 (0.11–2.19) 0.36

*Analysis used an 80% neutralization cutoff in plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs). Date refers to Julian date (January 1 = 1) and ranged from 165 (June 14) to 285 (October 15). All effects were significant when using a 90% cutoff in PRNTs at p<0.05 except urbanization index (UI) (p = 0.10). CI, confidence interval.
†Squirrel samples collected in September and April at Takoma Park, MD, and Foggy Bottom, Washington DC, were significantly different (logistic regression with age, site, and month as categorical factors; September coefficient −2.22 ± 0.85; p = 0.009).
‡Species effect χ2 16.3; df 5; p = 0.007. Coefficients and odds ratios used eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) for the reference level.

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