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Volume 14, Number 8—August 2008

Dispatch

Pathogenicity of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Adult Mute Swans

Donata Kalthoff*, Angele Breithaupt*, Jens P. Teifke*, Anja Globig*, Timm Harder*, Thomas C. Mettenleiter*, and Martin Beer*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany;

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Figure 2

Figure 2 - Immunohistochemical analysis for nucleoprotein of avian influenza virus. Tissue sections were stained by using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method, 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (red), and hematoxylin (blue). A) Brain, cerebrum: numerous glial cells, neurons and ependymal cells stain positive for influenza virus antigen (scale bar = 200 μm). B) Eye, retina: cells of the pigmented epithelial layer, photoreceptor cells, and cells of the outer and inner nuclear layers are po

Figure 2. Immunohistochemical analysis for nucleoprotein of avian influenza virus. Tissue sections were stained by using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method, 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (red), and hematoxylin (blue). A) Brain, cerebrum: numerous glial cells, neurons and ependymal cells stain positive for influenza virus antigen (scale bar = 200 μm). B) Eye, retina: cells of the pigmented epithelial layer, photoreceptor cells, and cells of the outer and inner nuclear layers are positive for the nucleoprotein of influenza virus (scale bar = 100 μm). C) Liver: subadjacent to the capsule there is hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis around a congested central vein (scale bar = 100 μm). D) Skin: keratinized layer of the feather follicular epithelium shows focal necrosis with intense nuclear and cytoplasmic immunostaining (scale bar =100 μm). E) Nasal cavity: focal intraepithelial necrosis of the mucocutaneous membrane associated with influenza virus infection (scale bar = 50 μm). F) Nasal concha: numerous submucosal arterioles and venules display strong endothelial staining, which partially extends into the media of the vessels (scale bar = 100 μm).

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