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Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009

Dispatch

Ducks as Sentinels for Avian Influenza in Wild Birds

Anja GlobigComments to Author , Anette Baumer, Sandra Revilla-Fernández, Martin Beer, Eveline Wodak, Maria Fink, Norbert Greber, Timm C. Harder, Hendrik Wilking, Iris Brunhart, Doris Matthes, Ulf Kraatz, Peter Strunk, Wolfgang Fiedler, Sasan R. Fereidouni, Christoph Staubach, Franz J. Conraths, Chris Griot, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, and Katharina D.C. Stärk
Author affiliations: Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany (A. Globig, M. Beer, T.C. Harder, H. Wilking, U. Kraatz, P. Strunk, S.R. Fereidouni, C. Staubach, F.J. Conraths, T.C. Mettenleiter); Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis, Mittelhäusern, Switzerland (A. Baumer, C. Griot); Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, Mödling, Austria (S. Revilla-Fernández, E. Wodak, M. Fink); State of Vorarlberg Veterinary Directorate, Vorarlberg, Austria (N. Greber); Bird Ringing Centre, Radolfzell, Germany (D. Matthes, W. Fiedler); Federal Veterinary Office, Bern, Switzerland (I. Brunhart); Royal Veterinary College, London, UK (K.D.C. Stärk)

Main Article

Table 1

Detection of AIV by sampling of sentinel mallard ducks (Anas plathyrhynchos) at 5 locations in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria*†

Sentinel location Date sampled Ct range‡ Duration virus excretion, d HA subtype NA subtype Isolate Sequence of HA-cleavage site (H5, H7)
Radolfzell, Germany
2007 Aug 29–37 Min 28, max 42 H6 N8 Yes
2007 Oct 31–39 Min 14, max 28 H2 N5 Yes
H3 N2 Yes
2008 Jan 33–38 Punctual H3 N2 Yes
2008 Jun 33–39 Punctual H3 N2 No
2008 Sep
33–39
Min 14, max 28
H3
N8
Yes

Altenrhein, Switzerland
2007 Oct 27–39 Min 15, max 39 ND§ N2 No
2007 Dec 24–37 Punctual H2 N2 No
2008 Aug
29–34
Punctual
H9
N2
No

Bregenz-Thal, Austria
2007 Apr 28–38 Min 23, max 38 H3 ND¶ No
2007 Oct 22–40 Min 12, max 26 H9 N2 Yes
2008 Jan 27–38 Min 14, max 42 H1 N1 No
2008 Mar
25–35
Min 14, max 42
H7
ND¶
No
PEIPKGR GLF
Lake Felchow, Brandenburg, Germany
2006 Dec 27–35 Min 22, max 36 H6 N2 Yes
2007 Jan 29–38 Min 14, max 34 H5 N3? No PQRETR GLF
2007 Mar 35–38 Punctual H5 ND¶ No
2007 Sep 31–39 Punctual H6 N5 Yes
2007 Dec 27–37 Min 42, max 56 H9 ND¶ No
H1? ND¶ No
H11? ND¶ No
2008 Feb/Mar
30–38
Min 56, max 70
H9
ND¶
No

Isle of Koos, Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania, Germany 2006 Dec 29–35 Min 14, max 28 H4 N6 Yes
2007 Aug 32–38 Min 35, max 49 H7 N3 Yes PEIPKGR GLF

*Radolfzell, Altenrhein, and Bregenz-Thal are located along Lake Constance. AIV, avian influenza virus; Ct, cycle threshold value; HA, hemagglutinin; NA, neuraminidase; min, minimum; max, maximum; ND, not determined.
†Each sentinel flock comprised 10–20 birds. Only the initial detection of each AIV introduction and determined HA or NA subtypes are presented.
‡Results of matrix and nucleocapsid protein gene fragments by real-time reverse transcription–PCR.
§AIV-positive, HA subtype not determined, non-H5, non-H7.
¶AIV-positive, NA subtype not determined, non-N1.

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