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Volume 15, Number 2—February 2009

Research

Causes of Death in HIV-infected Persons Who Have Tuberculosis, Thailand

Kevin P. CainComments to Author , Thanomsak Anekthananon, Channawong Burapat, Somsak Akksilp, Wiroj Mankhatitham, Chawin Srinak, Sriprapa Nateniyom, Wanchai Sattayawuthipong, Theerawit Tasaneeyapan, and Jay K. Varma
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (K.P. Cain, J.K. Varma); Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand (T. Anekthananon); Thailand Ministry of Public Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thaliand (C. Burapat, T. Tasaneeyapan, J.K. Varma); Thailand Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi (S. Nateniyom); Office of Disease Prevention and Control 7, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand (S. Akksilp); Bamrasnaradura Institute, Nonthaburi, Thailand (W. Mankhatitham); Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Bangkok (C. Srinak); Phuket Provincial Public Health Office, Phuket, Thailand (W. Sattayawuthipong)

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Table 2

Causes of death for all enrolled patients who died (N = 142), Thailand, 2005–2007*

Cause of death No. (%) patients
TB 38 (27)
Disseminated TB (3 with MDR TB) 20 (53)
Central nervous system TB 
 (1 with MDR TB) 7 (18)
Pulmonary TB (2 with MDR TB) 10 (26)
Peritoneal TB
1 (3)
HIV-associated condition 50 (35)
Bacterial infection 6 (12)
Cerebral toxoplasmosis 4 (8)
Disseminated CMV 1 (2)
Fungal infection (other than PCP) 8 (16)
Liver disease 1 (2)
Nontuberculous mycobacteria 10 (20)
PCP 7 (14)
Other infectious cause 5 (10)
Other noninfectious cause 1 (2)
Unknown
7 (14)
TB or HIV-associated condition equally likely 32 (23)
Disseminated mycobacterial disease 
 (TB vs. NTM) 6 (19)
Liver disease 1 (3)
Other infectious cause 3 (9)
Other noninfectious cause 1 (3)
Unknown
21 (66)
Non-TB/HIV–associated condition 22 (15)
Bacterial infection 1 (5)
Liver disease 11 (50)
Stevens-Johnson syndrome 2 (9)
Other infectious cause 1 (5)
Other noninfectious cause 6 (27)
Unknown 1 (5)

*TB, tuberculosis; MDR TB, multidrug-resistant TB; CMV, cytomegalovirus; PCP, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia; NTM, nontuberculous mycobacteria.

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