Sudden Increases in Listeriosis Rates in England and Wales, 2001 and 2003
Figure 1. Exploratory analyses of changing rates of listeriosis. A) Listeriosis cases compared with mean observed monthly UK temperatures, 1990–2000 (triangles) and 2001–2007 (circles). Shown are an increased overall incidence in 2001–2007 (dashed line) versus 1990–2000 (solid line) and a significant change in the linear dependence of incidence on temperature (p = 0.001). B) Best-fit pair of break points and other pairs of break points with support, according to the corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The 2 break-point months are varied to find the lowest value (black square). Pairs of break points with good support relative to the best model (corrected AIC within 4 of the best fit; dark gray squares) or moderate to weak support (corrected AIC within 10 of the best fit; light gray squares) are also shown. Pairs of break points with little or no support (corrected AIC >10 greater than the best fit; white area) include those models for which only 1 break point exists (squares along the dashed line).