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Volume 15, Number 3—March 2009

Research

Prevalence and Seasonality of Influenza-like Illness in Children, Nicaragua, 2005–2007

Aubree Gordon, Oscar Ortega, Guillermina Kuan, Arthur Reingold, Saira Saborio, Angel Balmaseda, and Eva HarrisComments to Author 
Author affiliations: University of California, Berkeley, California, USA (A. Gordon, A. Reingold, E. Harris); Sustainable Sciences Institute, Managua, Nicaragua (O. Ortega); Ministry of Health, Managua (G. Kuan, S. Saborio, A. Balmaseda)

Main Article

Table 5

Household risk factors for influenza-like illness in a subset of 2,615 children 2–11 years of age, Managua, Nicaragua, 2005–2007*

Characteristic Crude RR† (95% CI) Adjusted RR†‡ (95% CI)
Sex
M 0.96 (0.87–1.07) 0.98 (0.89–1.07)
F
Ref
Ref
Age, y
2 5.01 (3.63–6.93) 4.83 (3.50–6.66)
3 4.21 (3.08–5.76) 4.07 (2.98–5.56)
4 3.13 (2.29–4.30) 3.05 (2.22–4.18)
5 2.55 (1.85–3.51) 2.51 (1.82–3.45)
6 2.03 (1.47–2.80) 2.01 (1.46–2.78)
7 2.01 (1.45–2.80) 2.00 (1.44–2.78)
8 1.50 (1.06–2.12) 1.49 (1.06–2.10)
9 1.55 (1.10–2.19) 1.54 (1.09–2.17)
10 1.25 (0.88–1.77) 1.24 (0.88–1.76)
11
Ref
Ref
Asthma
Yes 1.83 (1.57–2.13) 1.51 (1.32–1.75)
No
Ref
Ref
Persons/room
<3 Ref Ref
3–4 1.04 (0.93–1.17) 1.07 (0.96–1.20)
>5
1.14 (1.00–1.31)
1.18 (1.04–1.34)
Mother literate
Yes 0.80 (0.63–1.01) 0.79 (0.64–0.98)
No
Ref
Ref
Dirt floor
Yes 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.88 (0.78–1.00)
No Ref Ref

*RR, relative risk; CI, confidence interval; Ref, reference.
†The measure of RR used is the incidence rate ratio.
‡Multivariate model included sex, age, asthma status, person density in house, mother’s literacy, and a dirt floor.

Main Article

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