Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 15, Number 4—April 2009

Research

Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Virus A (H1N1), Europe, 2007–08 Season

Adam MeijerComments to Author , Angie Lackenby, Olav Hungnes, Bruno Lina, Sylvie van der Werf, Brunhilde Schweiger, Matthias Opp, John Paget, Jan van de Kassteele, Alan Hay, Maria Zambon, and on behalf of the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme
Author affiliations: Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands (A. Meijer, J. Paget); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (A. Meijer, J. van de Kassteele); European Surveillance Network for Vigilance against Viral Resistance (A. Lackenby, B. Lina, S. van der Werf, A. Hay, M. Zambon); Health Protection Agency, London, UK (A. Lackenby, M. Zambon); Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway (O. Hungnes); Centre National de Référence des Virus Influenza (Région Sud), Lyon, France (B. Lina); Centre National de Référence des Virus Influenza (Région Nord), Paris, France (S. van der Werf); Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany (B. Schweiger); Laboratoire National de Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (M. Opp); World Health Organization Collaborating Centre Medical Research Council/National Institute of Medical Research, London (A. Hay)

Main Article

Table

Peak incidence rates of ILI or ARI infection for countries for which data were available, Europe, 2000–01 through 2007–08 influenza seasons*

Country ILI/ ARI† Peak incidence rate/10,000 population during influenza season
Peak incidence rates¶
2000–01 through 2007–08
Dominant virus§
Median Range Consecutive no. seasons‡ Incidence rate ratio p value
2000–01 2007–08
Austria# ILI 168.1 108.0–263.2 4 NA 186.1 (H1)
Belgium ILI 51.9 30.3–95.1 8 30.3 (H1) 38.0 (H1) 1.3 0.004
Bulgaria ARI NA NA 186.0 (H1)
Czech Republic ARI 188.1 134.5–320.0 8 310.2 (H1) 144.4 (H1) 0.5 1.000
Denmark ILI 30.7 13.8–47.8 8 44.5 (H1) 13.8 (H1) 0.3 1.000
Estonia ILI 2.9 0.6–4.9 3 NA 2.9 (H1)
France ARI 336.1 279.7–448.8 7 NA 279.7 (H1)
Germany ARI 185.6 136.9–256.5 8 247.3 (H1) 136.9 (H1/B) 0.6 1.000
Greece ILI 27.7 23.1–42.1 3 NA 23.1 (H1)
Hungary ILI 50.1 21.0–54.6 3 NA 54.6 (H1)
Ireland ILI 7.5 2.9–12.1 8 12.1 (H1) 4.9 (H1/B) 0.4 1.000
Italy ILI 79.5 27.6–428.2 8 56.7 (H1) 72.1 (H1/B) 1.3 0.0001
Latvia ILI 45.6 25.1–93.3 5 NA 26.6 (H1)
Lithuania ILI 34.9 13.3–47.2 7 NA 13.3 (H1)
Luxembourg ILI 72.6 32.7–79.1 5 NA 67.4 (H1)
The Netherlands ILI 10.3 6.6–24.0 8 6.9 (H1) 7.2 (H1/B) 1.0 0.400
Norway ILI 18.5 10.9–31.7 3 NA 10.9 (H1/B)
Poland ILI 23.0 6.2–66.7 7 NA 16.6 (H1)
Portugal ILI 8.1 3.0–17.4 8 3.8 (H1) 6.2 (H1/B) 1.6 0.016
Romania ILI 1.2 0.4–3.7 4 NA 1.4 (H1)
Serbia ILI 37.8 30.6–44.9 2 NA 30.6 (H1)
Slovakia ILI 136.3 49.5–337.3 8 337.3 (H1) 49.5 (H1) 0.1 1.000
Slovenia ILI 15.2 4.5–39.2 8 14.1 (H1) 20.4 (H1) 1.5 0.001
Spain ILI 21.2 4.2–54.1 8 4.2 (H1) 20.3 (H1/B) 4.8 0.0001
Sweden# ILI 2.0 1.6–5.8 5 5.8 (H1) 1.8 (B) 0.3 1.000
Switzerland ILI 39.8 19.4–53.2 7 NA 29.7 (H1)
United Kingdom ILI 3.8 2.7–8.4 8 5.5 (H1) 2.7 (H1/B) 0.5 1.000

*ILI, influenza-like illness; ARI, acute respiratory infection; NA, data not available.
†For countries where both ILI and ARI data were available, only the ILI data are shown.
‡Leading up to 2007–08.
§Dominant virus estimated on the basis of combined sentinel and nonsentinel data. The limits for codominant virus types/subtypes were 45%:55%.
¶2007–08 compared with 2000–01. The incidence rate ratio was calculated by dividing the peak incidence rate for 2007–08 by the peak incidence rate for 2000–01. If the p value estimated using z-statistics is <0.05, the incidence rate ratio is significantly >1, and therefore the peak incidence rate for 2007–08 is significantly higher than that for 2000–01.
#Data for seasons 2002–03, 2003–04, and 2004–05 were missing.

Main Article

1European Influenza Surveillance Scheme members, 2007–08 season: P. Lachner, T. Popow-Kraupp, R. Strauss (Austria); B. Brochier, M. Sabbe, I. Thomas, V. Casteren, F. Yane (Belgium); T. Georgieva, M. Kojouharova, R. Kotseva, A. Kurchatova (Bulgaria); B. Aleraj, V. Drazenovic (Croatia); D. Bagatzouni-Pieridou, A. Elia (Cyprus); M. Havlickova, J. Kyncl (Czech Republic); S. Glismann, A. Mazick, L. Nielsen (Denmark); D.M. Fleming, A. Lackenby, J. Watson, M. Zambon (England); O. Sadikova, I. Sarv (Estonia); T. Ziegler (Finland); J.-M. Cohen, V. Enouf, B. Lina, A. Mosnier, M. Valette, S. van der Werf (France); U. Buchholz, W. Haas, B. Schweiger (Germany); A.G. Kossivakis, V. Kyriazopoulou-Dalaina, A. Mentis, G. Spala (Greece); G. Berencsi, A. Csohán, I. Jankovics (Hungary); S. Coughlan, L. Domegan, M. Duffy, M. Joyce, J. O’Donnell, D. O'Flanagan (Ireland); F. Ansaldi, P. Crovari, I. Donatelli, F. Pregliasco (Italy); R. Nikiforova, I. Van Velicko, N. Zamjatina (Latvia); A. Griskevicius, N. Kupreviciene, G. Rimseliene (Lithuania); J. Mossong, M. Opp (Luxembourg); C. Barbara, T. Melillo (Malta); A. Arkema, T. Meerhoff, W.J. Paget, K. van der Velden, (EISS-CC, the Netherlands); F. Dijkstra, G. Donker, J.C. de Jong, A. Meijer, G. Rimmelzwaan, M. van der Sande, B. Wilbrink (the Netherlands); P. Coyle, H. Kennedy, H. O’Neill (Northern Ireland); O. Hungnes, B. Iversen (Norway); L. Brydak, M. Romanowska (Poland); I.M. Falcão, J.M. Falcão, H. Rebelo de Andrade (Portugal); V. Alexandrescu, E. Lupulescu (Romania); W. Carman, R. Gunson, J. Kean, J. McMenamin (Scotland); N. Milic, J. Nedeljkovic (Serbia); H. Blaskovicova, Z. Kristufkova, M. Sláciková (Slovakia); K. Prosenc, M. Socan (Slovenia); I. Casas, A. Larrrauri, S. de Mateo, R. Ortiz de Lejarazu, P. Pérez-Breña, T. Pumarola Suñé, T. Vega Alonso (Spain); M. Brytting, A. Linde, P. Penttinen, S. Rubinova (Sweden); Y. Thomas, M. Witschi (Switzerland); N. Yilmaz (Turkey); M. Aranova, A. Mironenko (Ukraine); A. Hay (United Kingdom); and R. Jones, D. Thomas (Wales).

TOP