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Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009

Dispatch

Canine Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Spain

Joaquina Martín-SánchezComments to Author , Manuel Morales-Yuste, Carmen Acedo-Sánchez, Sergio Barón, Victoriano Díaz, and Francisco Morillas-Márquez
Author affiliations: Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain (J. Martín-Sánchez, M. Morales-Yuste, S. Barón, V. Díaz, F. Morillas-Márquez); Laboratorio de Análisis Veterinarios ANLAVE, Granada (C. Acedo-Sánchez)

Main Article

Table 1

Possible factors associated with canine leishmaniasis, southeastern Spain*

Variables No. dogs % Dogs with canine leishmaniasis Relative likelihood p value
Bioclimatic level 439 13.0 0.005
Thermo-Mediterranean 210 13.3 Ref
Meso-Mediterranean 139 20.1 1.640 0.092
Supra-Mediterranean
90
1.1
0.073
0.011
Habitat 438 13.0 0.999
Rural 435 13.1 Ref
Urban/peri-urban
3
0.0
0.000

Sex 435 12.4 0.662 0.178
Male 253 14.2
Female
182
9.9


Age, y 421 13.0 2.094 <0.001
<4 232 9.5
>4
189
18.0


Weight, kg 405 13.6 1.859 0.048
<25 316 11.9
>25
89
20.0


Fur length 349 15.5 0.494 0.069
Short/ medium 255 17.6
Long
94
9.6


Activity 439 13.0 <0.001
Pet 258 8.5 Ref
Hunting 133 15.0 1.899 0.052
Other†
48
31.3
4.876
<0.001
Location during daytime 373 15.3 <0.001
House 151 4.0 Ref
Outside 122 28.7 9.722 <0.001
In kennels
100
16.0
4.603
0.002
Location at night 435 13.1 0.384 0.001
Outdoors 186 19.4
Indoors
249
8.4


Travel away from home 438 13.0 1.384 0.461
No 396 12.6
Yes
42
16.7


Clinical signs of leishmaniasis 439 13.0 2.129 0.122
No 413 12.3
Yes
26
23.1


Fly protection 375 15.2 1.551 0.969
No 361 15.0
Yes
14
21.4


Phlebotomus perniciosus density 439 13.0 0.005
<4 sandflies/m2 303 9.9 Ref
>4 sandflies/m2
136
19.9
2.254

P. ariasi density 439 13.0 <0.001
<6 sandflies/m2 383 10.7 Ref
>6 sandflies/m2 56 28.6 3.337

*Univariate analysis by logistic regression. Dogs considered to have canine leishmaniasis were those with antibody titer >160. We investigated the existence of interaction and/or confusion between variables by constructing and comparing logistic regression models. The statistical analysis was performed using the software package SPSS 15.0 (www.spss.com). Confusion was noted between the location during daytime and location at night, so location during daytime was excluded from the multivariate analysis. No interaction was detected between any pair of independent variables. Ref, referent.
†Guard dogs (n = 34), sheepdogs (n = 8), stray dogs (n = 4), dogs in kennel (n = 2).

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