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Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009

CME ACTIVITY - Research

Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia

Victor Chalwe, Doreen Mukwamataba, Joris Menten, John Kamalamba, Modest Mulenga, Umberto D’Alessandro, and Jean-Pierre Van geertruydenComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia (V. Chalwe, D. Mukwamataba, M. Mulenga); Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium (J.-P. Van geertruyden, J. Menten, U. D’Alessandro); Thomson Hospital, Luanshya, Zambia (J. Kamalamba)

Main Article

Table 1

Risk factors for severe malaria in case–control study, Luanshya, Zambia

Risk factors Case-patients, n = 29 Controls with uncomplicated malaria, n = 29 Asymptomatic controls, n = 29 p value
Demographic characteristics*
GM† age, y (range) 33 (18–50) 33 (20–49) 33 (18–50)
No. (%) male
14 (48)
14 (48)
14 (48)

Living conditions†
No. (%) living in mud/clay hut 4 (14) 4 (14) 5 (17) 0.91
No. (%) living in concrete house 25 (86) 25 (86) 24 (83)
GM no. persons living in house* (95% CI) 4.7 (3.7–6.0) 3.6 (2.9–4.5) 4.7 (3.8–5.8) 0.76
Mean no. sleeping under bed net (95% CI) 1.5 (0.7–2.3) 1.5 (0.7–2.3) 1.4 (0.5–2.3) 0.85
No. (%) sleeping under bed net
7 (24)
9 (31)
9 (31)
0.80
No. (%) using antimalarial drug during previous week 13 (45) 8 (28) 5 (17) 0.13
No. using quinine 2 2 1
No. using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine 8 5 3
No. using artemether–lumefantrine
5
1
0

No. (%) with HIV-1 27 (93) 15 (52) 13 (45) 0.03
GM CD4 count (95% CI)‡ 173 (125–240) 205 (112–377) 677 (427–1074)
No. (%) CD4 count <200/µL‡ 11/23 (48) 5/14 (36) 1/12 (8) <0.001
No. (%) CD4 count <350/µL‡ 19/23 (83) 11/14 (79) 1/12 (8) <0.001

*Matching variables.
†GM, geometric mean; CI, confidence interval.
‡Not measured in 4 case-patients, 1 control with uncomplicated malaria, and 1 asymptomatic control because of technical constraints.

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