Slave Trade and Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes and Subgenotypes in Haiti and Africa
Iris E. Andernach, Claudine Nolte, Jean W. Pape, and Claude P. Muller
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Institute of Immunology, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (I.E. Andernach, C.P. Muller); Groupe d’Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes, Port-au-Prince, Haiti (C. Nolte, J.W. Pape); Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA (J.W. Pape).
Figure 3. . Distribution of hepatitis B virus A subgenotypes and D4 (only in Rwanda) in Africa and their potential routes of spread toward Haiti (color-coded arrows). Colored dots indicate African countries with <10 A strains available; full color indicates countries with >90% dominance of 1 subgenotype; or a 60%–90% predominance of 1 subgenotype, with minority subgenotypes shown as diamonds. Subgenotypes other than A1 and D4 are not shown for Rwanda. Sequences included were obtained from GenBank and unpublished data.
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