Distant Relatives of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Close Relatives of Human Coronavirus 229E in Bats, Ghana
Susanne Pfefferle, Samuel Oppong, Jan Felix Drexler, Florian Gloza-Rausch, Anne Ipsen, Antje Seebens, Marcel A. Müller, Augustina Annan, Peter Vallo, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Thomas F. Kruppa, and Christian Drosten
Author affiliations: Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany (S. Pfefferle, J.F. Drexler, T.F. Kruppa); University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany (S. Pfefferle, J.F. Drexler, M.A. Müller, C. Drosten); Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (S. Oppong, Y. Adu-Sarkodie); Noctalis, Centre for Bat Protection and Information, Bad Segeberg, Germany (F. Floza-Rausch, A. Ipsen, A. Seebens); Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kumasi (A. Annan, T.F. Kruppa); Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic (P. Vallo)
Figure 3. A) Phylogeny of coronaviruses (CoVs) in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp, 817-bp fragment) with root point dates derived from Bayesian inference under a relaxed lognormal molecular clock assumption with a codon-based substitution model (SRD06) and an assumption of expansion growth of the virus population. Estimated dates of diversification of CoV lineages at root points are shown in italics for the expansion growth population model and in regular type for the exponential growth model. Dates bc are identified with a suffix; dates ad are not. B) Bayesian phylogeny from the CoV group 1 root, using the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Highest posterior densities for all root points were >0.99, except where indicated.
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