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Volume 16, Number 1—January 2010

Research

Epidemiology of Travel-associated Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Infection in 116 Patients, Singapore

Pratik Mukherjee, Poh Lian LimComments to Author , Angela Chow, Timothy Barkham, Eillyne Seow, Mar Kyaw Win, Arlene Chua, Yee Sin Leo, and Mark I-Cheng Chen
Author affiliations: Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (P. Mukherjee, P.L. Lim, A. Chow, T. Barkham, E. Seow, M.K. Win, A. Chua, Y.S. Leo, M.I-C. Chen); National University of Singapore, Singapore (A. Chow, M.I-C. Chen); Duke–National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore (M.I-C. Chen)

Main Article

Table 2

Predictors of time to isolation for 116 patients with travel-associated pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Singapore, April 26–June 27, 2009*

Predictive factor No. patients Delay to isolation, mean no. days (95% CI)† p value‡
Port of embarkation 0.718
Asian countries 56 1.64 (1.32–1.96)
All other countries
60
1.55 (1.20–1.91)

Source of referral to TTSH 0.015
Airport doctors 15 0.76 (0.33–1.19)
Community doctors 50 1.58 (1.28–1.88)
Self-referral
51
1.85 (1.44–2.27)

Met US-CDC ILI criteria§ 0.426
No 56 1.69 (1.31–2.08)
Yes
60
1.50 (1.21–1.79)

Met WHO ILI criteria¶ 0.650
No 65 1.64 (1.30–1.99)
Yes
51
1.53 (1.21–1.86)

Time of onset of symptoms 0.664
Before embarkation 29 1.78 (1.14–2.42)
While traveling 17 1.49 (0.87–2.12)
After disembarkation
70
1.54 (1.29–1.80)

Duration of travel, h 0.350
<3 22 1.96 (1.37–2.55)
3–5.9 34 1.39 (1.03–1.74)
6–14.9 36 1.69 (1.31–2.08)
>15
24
1.41 (0.74–2.08)

Arrival at TTSH, by epidemiologic week# 0.868
21 5 1.83 (0.50–3.15)
22 8 1.30 (0.44–2.16)
23 13 1.87(1.13–2.61)
24 41 1.61 (1.17–2.05)
25 49 1.53 (1.19–1.87)

*CI, confidence interval; TTSH, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; US CDC, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; ILI, influenza-like illness; WHO, World Health Organization.
†No. days from arrival to hospital examination in patients with onset before arrival and no. days from onset to hospital examination in patients with onset after arrival.
‡p value by t test for dichotomous variables and 1-way analysis of variance for multichotomous variables.
§Temperature >37.8°C plus cough or sore throat.
¶Temperature >38.0°C plus cough or sore throat.
#Week 21, May 24–30; week 22, May 30–June 6; week 23, June 7-13; week 24, June 14–20; week 25, June 21–27.

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