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Volume 16, Number 10—October 2010

Dispatch

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Risk for Malaria Infection

Ina Danquah, George Bedu-Addo, and Frank P. MockenhauptComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Berlin, Germany (I. Danquah, F.P. Mockenhaupt); Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana (G. Bedu-Addo)

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Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of 1,466 urban residents of Kumasi, Ghana, 2007–2008*

Characteristics Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus, n = 675 Persons without diabetes, n = 791 p value
Age, y, mean (range) 54.7 (18–92) 47.1 (18–100) <0.0001
Male gender 171 (25.3) 182 (23.0) 0.299
Wealth score <25th percentile† 265 (39.6) 271 (34.3) 0.044
Illiteracy 308 (45.8) 206 (26.1) <0.0001
Formal education, none 240 (35.7) 130 (16.5) <0.0001
Crowded living condition‡ 177 (26.7) 120 (15.3) <0.0001
Smoking, current or quit 49 (7.3) 35 (4.4) 0.024
Akan ethnicity
592 (87.8)
685 (86.6)
0.480
Residence
Kumasi metropolitan area 476 (70.8) 603 (76.2)
Kumasi suburbs 174 (25.9) 162 (20.5)
Els3where§
22 (3.3)
26 (3.3)
0.048
Occupation
Public servant 44 (6.5) 194 (24.6)
Trader 198 (29.5) 190 (24.1)
Farmer 65 (9.7) 48 (6.1)
Unemployed 248 (36.9) 138 (17.5)
Other¶
117 (17.4)
218 (27.7)
<0.0001
FPG, mmol/L, mean (range) 8.3 (1.3–37.1) 4.5 (2.9–7.0) <0.0001
Hemoglobin, g/dL, mean (range) 12.9 (5.8–19.1) 13.6 (4.9–19.1) <0.0001
Fever, >37.5°C 2 (0.3) 4 (0.5) 0.693
History of fever, preceding week
95 (14.1)
93 (11.8)
0.182
Respiratory tract infection 5 (0.7) 11 (1.4) 0.232
Urinary tract infection#
14 (2.1)
7 (0.9)
0.076
Plasmodium spp. infection, by microscopy 5 (0.7) 8 (1.0) 0.582
Parasite density, per µL, median (range)
1,160 (160–2,480)
860 (80–4,960)
0.770
Plasmodium spp. infection, by PCR
Plasmodium spp. 117 (17.4) 89 (11.3) 0.001
P. falciparum 108 (16.0) 81 (10.3) 0.001
P. malariae 14 (2.1) 9 (1.1) 0.205
P. ovale 8 (1.2) 7 (0.9) 0.611

*Values are no. (%) unless otherwise indicated. p values were calculated by Mann-Whitney U test or Fisher exact test, as applicable. FPG, fasting plasma glucose concentration.
†<25th percentile of a calculated index of 11 markers of wealth: electricity, pipe-borne water, radio, fan, cupboard, television, bicycle, motorbike, refrigerator, car/truck/tractor, cattle.
‡>75th percentile of the number of persons living in the household.
§Hinterland and environs.
¶Includes casual laborer, artisan, and others.
#By nitrite-positive urine dipstick test (Combur 10, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany).

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