Volume 16, Number 10—October 2010
Epidemiology of Human Parvovirus 4 Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa
||Co-infection||Mean year of birth (range)
|Burkina Faso||Blood donors||167||0||0||1982 (1951–1999)||2007||62 (37.1)|
|Cameroon||General population||238||0||0||1968 (1962–1972)||2007||59 (24.8)|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Military population||221||2§||0||1968 (1936–1986)||2007||78 (35.3)|
|South Africa||Blood donors (HIV-positive)||170||170||0||1976 (1945–1990)||2007||62 (36.4)|
|South Africa||Blood donors (HIV-negative)||180||0||0||NA||2009||8 (4.4)|
|United Kingdom||General population||161||ND||ND||1950 (1937–1977)||2005||0|
|France||Blood donors||199||0||0||1965 (1943–1989)||2008||0|
*HCV, hepatitis C virus; PARV4, human parvovirus 4; NA, not available; ND, screening not done.
†HIV-1 screening methods: South Africa, France: fourth-generation ELISA.
‡HCV screening methods: Burkina-Faso, South Africa, France: third-generation ELISA, recombinant immunoblot assay confirmation of positive results; Democratic Republic of the Congo: third-generation ELISA, exclusion of reactive samples; Cameroon: PCR-based screening, exclusion of PCR-positive samples. United Kingdom: not screened (ND), low risk background and absence of parenteral or HIV risk factors.
§1 of 2 HIV-positive samples was seropositive for PARV4.
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