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Volume 16, Number 12—December 2010

Research

Environmental Sampling for Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1) in Live-Bird Markets, Indonesia

Risa Indriani1, Gina Samaan1Comments to Author , Anita Gultom, Leo Loth, Sri Irianti, Rma Adjid, Ni Luh Putu Indi Dharmayanti, John Weaver, Elizabeth Mumford, Kamalini Lokuge, Paul M. Kelly, and Darminto

Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science, Bogor, Indonesia (R. Indriani, R. Adjid, N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti, Darminto); The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia (G. Samaan, K. Lokuge, P.M. Kelly); World Health Organization, Jakarta, Indonesia (G. Samaan); Ministry of Health, Jakarta (A. Gultom, S. Irianti); Food and Agriculture Organization, Dhaka, Bangladesh (L. Loth); Food and Agriculture Organization, Hanoi, Vietnam (J. Weaver); World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (E. Mumford)

Main Article

Table 1

Environmental sites in LBMs contaminated by influenza virus A (H5N1) as detected by RT-PCR and virus isolation, Indonesia, 2007–2008*

Poultry zone Site no. Environmental site RT-PCR–positive/markets tested (%), N = 1,862 VI–positive/RT-PCR positive, n = 280 LBMs positive for zone
Delivery 1 Inside cages on truck 6/45 (13.3) 1/6 11
2 Floor in delivery area 6/49 (12.2) 0/6

3
Water run-off in delivery area
4/38 (10.5)
0/4
Holding 4 Poultry cage floors 6/79 (7.6) 0/6 24
5 Holding area floor 8/80 (10) 1/8
6 Water run-off 11/72 (15.3) 0/11
7 Poultry feeding bottle water 8/67 (11.9) 0/8
8 Poultry feeding basket food 6/72 (8.3) 0/6
9 Handles to poultry cages 9/79 (11.4) 0/9

10
Inside of waste bins
10/59 (16.9)
0/10
Slaughter 11 Handles of knives used for slaughtering 8/75 (10.7) 1/8 29
12 Basket holding dying chickens 8/71 (11.3) 2/8
13 Floor in slaughter area 10/77 (13) 0/10
14 Chopping or slaughtering board 14/71 (19.7) 2/14
15 Processing table after de-feathering 15/70 (21.4) 0/15
16 Baskets holding poultry meat 14/70 (20) 1/14
17 Drain path 12/75 (16) 0/12
18 Tap handles in slaughter area 7/65 (10.8) 0/7

19
Waste bin
13/71 (18.3)
1/13
Sale 20 Chopping boards 15/80 (18.8) 1/15 30
21 Scales 12/57 (21.1) 0/12
22 Knife handles 12/78 (15.4) 1/12
23 Waste bins 10/60 (16.7) 1/10
24 Wet cloths for cleaning surfaces 14/78 (17.9) 0/14

25
Tables for poultry display
19/80 (23.8)
0/19
Waste disposal 26 Area waste-disposal bin 15/78 (19.2) 1/15 9

27
Wet cleaning mops
8/66 (12.1)
0/8
Total positive 280 (15) 13 (4.6)

*LBM, live-bird market; RT-PCR, reverse transcription–PCR; VI, virus isolation.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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