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Volume 16, Number 12—December 2010

Research

Environmental Sampling for Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1) in Live-Bird Markets, Indonesia

Risa Indriani1, Gina Samaan1Comments to Author , Anita Gultom, Leo Loth, Sri Irianti, Rma Adjid, Ni Luh Putu Indi Dharmayanti, John Weaver, Elizabeth Mumford, Kamalini Lokuge, Paul M. Kelly, and Darminto

Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science, Bogor, Indonesia (R. Indriani, R. Adjid, N.L.P.I. Dharmayanti, Darminto); The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia (G. Samaan, K. Lokuge, P.M. Kelly); World Health Organization, Jakarta, Indonesia (G. Samaan); Ministry of Health, Jakarta (A. Gultom, S. Irianti); Food and Agriculture Organization, Dhaka, Bangladesh (L. Loth); Food and Agriculture Organization, Hanoi, Vietnam (J. Weaver); World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (E. Mumford)

Main Article

Table 3

Comparison of exposures in LBMs with AIV (H5N1) environmental contamination and in LBMs with no environmental AI (H5N1) contamination, Indonesia, 2007–2008*

Exposure No. positive markets, n = 39 No. negative markets, n = 44 OR (95% CI) p value
No. ducks other than Muscovy in LBM
<11 8 11 Reference group
11–100 12 16 1.03 (0.32–3.35) 0.959
101–200 2 2 4.13 (0.16–11.95) 0.773
>200 10 2 6.88 (1.17–40.38) 0.033
Muscovy ducks 28 20 3.05 (1.22–7.63) 0.017
Pigeons
11
5
3.06 (0.96–9.81)
0.059
Clear zoning in LBM 3 10 0.28 (0.07–1.11) 0.072
Wooden tables 23 12 3.83 (1.53–9.62) 0.004
Slaughtering in LBM 36 34 3.53 (0.89–13.93) 0.072
Daily solid waste disposal 24 35 0.41 (0.16–1.09) 0.075
Mixing of species in same cage 13 6 2.92 (0.98–8.70) 0.055
Cages stacked vertically
25
33
0.38 (0.13–1.10)
0.069
Province
Jakarta 23 8 Reference group
West Java 25 16 4.49 (1.62–12.46) 0.004
Banten
6
5
3.45 (0.82–14.47)
0.090
Multivariable analysis†
Clear zoning in LBM 0.16 (0.03–0.86)‡ 0.030
Slaughtering in LBM 6.43 (1.01–40.82)‡ 0.048
Daily solid waste disposal
0.20 (0.06–0.69)‡ 0.010
Province
Jakarta Reference group
West Java 6.83 (2.01–23.19)‡ 0.002
Banten 2.94 (0.59–14.69)‡ 0.190

*LBM, live-bird market; AI, avian influenza; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
†Final model with 4 variables, no. observations = 83, goodness-of-fit tests: residual χ2, p = 0.38; Hosmer and Lemeshow test, p = 0.45.
‡Adjusted OR.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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