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Volume 16, Number 12—December 2010

Research

Surveillance and Analysis of Avian Influenza Viruses, Australia

Philip M. HansbroComments to Author , Simone Warner, John P. Tracey, K. Edla Arzey, Paul Selleck, Kim O’Riley, Emma L. Beckett, Chris Bunn, Peter D. Kirkland, Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Bjorn Olsen, and Aeron C. Hurt
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia (P.M. Hansbro, E.L. Beckett); Department of Primary Industries, Attwood, Victoria, Australia (S. Warner, K. O’Riley); Orange Agricultural Institute, Orange, New South Wales, Australia (J.P. Tracey); Elizabeth Macarthur Agriculture Institute, Menangle, New South Wales, Australia (K.E. Arzey, P.D. Kirkland); Australian Animal Health Laboratories, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (P. Selleck); Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia (C. Bunn); Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore (D. Vijaykrishna); Kalmar University, Kalmar, Sweden (B. Olsen); Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden (B. Olsen); World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (A.C. Hurt)

Main Article

Table 1

Summary of numbers and bird types sampled and PCR-positive rates of avian influenza viruses detected, by month and state, New South Wales and Victoria, Australia, 2005–2008*

Bird type and month
New South Wales

Victoria

Total
No. samples†
Pos
PPR, %
No. samples†
Pos
PPR, %
No. samples†
Pos
PPR, %
Shorebirds
Jan 704 (5) 1 0.14 206 (206) 910 1 0.11
Feb 1,087 (8) 2 0.18 901 (901) 7 0.78 1,988 9 0.45
Mar 939 (2) 2 0.21 939 2 0.21
Apr 328 6 1.80 328 6 1.80
May 163 5 3.10 163 5 3.10
Jun 217 4 1.80 217 4 1.80
Jul 101 1 0.99 101 1 0.99
Aug 126 126
Sep 529 1 0.19 529 1 0.19
Oct 586 404 (404) 7 1.70 990 7 0.71
Nov 694 (7) 10 0.76 627 (627) 1,321 10 0.76
Dec 323 2,068 (2,068) 5 0.24 2,391 5 0.21
Total
5,797
32
0.55

4,206
19
0.45

10,003
51
0.51
Waterfowl
Jan 265 4 1.50 406 23 5.70 671 27 4.00
Feb 393 9 2.30 265 2 0.75 658 11 1.70
Mar 591 (51) 14 2.40 836 (836) 44 5.30 1,427 58 4.10
Apr 836 (80) 25 3.00 241 5 2.10 1,077 30 2.80
May 1,262 (232) 18 1.40 175 10 5.70 1,437 28 1.90
Jun 740 (241) 10 1.40 14 754 10 1.30
Jul 525 (127) 13 2.50 4 529 13 2.50
Aug 496 (69) 10 2.00 496 10 2.00
Sep 596 (111) 25 4.20 5 1 20.0 601 26 4.30
Oct 381 (97) 2 0.50 329 9 2.70 710 11 1.50
Nov 770 (513) 6 0.80 366 6 1.60 1,136 12 1.00
Dec 578 (89) 10 1.70 157 1 0.64 735 11 1.50
Total
7,433
146
2.00

2,798
101
3.60

10,231
247
2.40
Other
Jan 62 (12) 1 (1) 63
Feb 198 (1) 10 (10) 208
Mar 35 (27) 1 (1) 36
Apr 314 (12) 1 0.40 314 1 0.30
May 159 (60) 159
Jun 72 (44) 72
Jul 17 (6) 3 (3) 20
Aug 107 (28) 107
Sep 133 (118) 133
Oct 196 (149) 1 (1) 197
Nov 259 (154) 23 (23) 282
Dec 33 (33) 1 3.00 33 1 3.00
Total
1,552
1


72
1
1.40

1,624
2
0.10
Total for all birds 14,782 182 1.32% 7,076 121 1.70 21,858 300 1.40

*Shorebirds refers to migratory shorebirds only. Sampling periods were defined as calendar months. Pos, number of PCR-positive results; PPR, PCR-positive rate.
†Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of cloacal samples; the remainder were fecal samples.

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