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Volume 16, Number 2—February 2010

CME ACTIVITY - Research

Risk Factors for and Estimated Incidence of Community-associated Clostridium difficile Infection, North Carolina, USA1

Preeta K. Kutty, Christopher W. Woods, Arlene C. Sena, Stephen R. Benoit, Susanna Naggie, Joyce Frederick, Sharon Evans, Jeffery Engel, and L. Clifford McDonaldComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (P.K. Kutty, S.R. Benoit, L.C. McDonald); Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA (C.W. Woods, S. Naggie, J. Frederick); Duke University Medical Center, Durham (C.W. Woods, S. Naggie, S. Evans); Durham County Health Department, Durham (A.C. Sena); University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA (A.C. Sena); North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA (J. Engel); 1Presented in part at the 44th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 12–15, 2006.

Main Article

Table 3

Results of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection case–control study, Durham County, North Carolina, USA, 2005*

Characteristics No. (%) persons
OR (95% CI)
Case-patients, n = 73 Controls, n = 48
Demographics
Median age, y (range) 61 (20–101) 55 (22–87)
Female gender 57 (58) 34 (71)
Non-Hispanic white race
34 (47)
35 (73)
0.32 (0.12–0.7)†
Coexisting health conditions
Cardiac failure 20 (27) 5 (10) 3.24 (1.12–9.4)†
GERD 20 (27) 2 (4) 8.7 (1.9–39.1)†
Hypertension
36 (49)
13 (27)
2.6 (1.2–5.7)†
Exposures‡
Antimicrobial drugs 32 (44) 8 (17) 3.9 (1.6–9.5)†
NSAIDs 13 (17.8) 24 (50) 0.2 (0.1–0.5)†
Gastric acid suppressors 15 (21) 5 (10) 2.2 (0.75–6.6)
H2 blockers 6 (8) 3 (6) 1.3 (0.3–5.6)
Proton pump inhibitor 9 (12) 2 (4) 3.2 (0.7–15.7)
GERD
20 (27)
2 (4)
8.7 (1.9–39.1)†
Multivariable analysis§
Antimicrobial drugs 9.1 (2.9–28.9)†¶
NSAIDs 0.2 (0.1–0.5)†¶
GERD 11.2 (1.9–64.2)†¶
White race 0.2 (0.05–0.40)†¶
Cardiac failure 3.8 (1.1–13.7)†¶

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
†p<0.05.
‡Exposures among case-patients were within 3 months prior to the test date; exposures for controls were for all of 2005.
§Goodness-of-fit tests: residual χ2, p = 0.38; Hosmer and Lemeshow, p = 0.77.
¶Adjusted OR.

Main Article

1Presented in part at the 44th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 12–15, 2006.

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