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Volume 16, Number 2—February 2010

Dispatch

Extensive Mammalian Ancestry of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus

Natalia A. Ilyushina1, Jeong-Ki Kim1, Nicholas J. Negovetich1, Young-Ki Choi1, Victoria Lang, Nicolai V. Bovin, Heather L. Forrest, Min-Suk Song, Philippe Noriel Q. Pascua, Chul-Joong Kim, Robert G. WebsterComments to Author , and Richard J. Webby
Author affiliations: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA (N.A. Ilyushina, J.-K. Kim, N.J. Negovetich, V. Lang, H.L. Forrest, R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby); D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow, Russia (N.A. Ilyushina); Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea (J.-K. Kim); Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea (Y.-K. Choi, M-S Song, P.N.Q. Pascua); Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (N.V. Bovin); Chungnam National University College of Veterinary Medicine, Daejeon (C.-J. Kim); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis (R.G. Webster, R.J. Webby)

Main Article

Table 1

Erythrocyte agglutination by representative human, pandemic, swine, and avian H1 influenza virus isolates

Virus isolate Subtype Hemagglutination titer of erythrocytes from indicated species, HAU*†
Turkey‡ Guinea pig‡ Chicken§ Goose§ Horse¶ Swine#
Human isolates
A/Brisbane/59/2007 H1N1 64 64 64 64 <2 <2
A/New Jersey/15/2007
H1N1
32
32
16
16
<2
<2
Pandemic isolates
A/California/04/2009 H1N1 64 64 4 16 <2 <2
A/Tennessee/1-560/2009
H1N1
32
32
<2
8
<2
<2
Swine isolates
A/swine/North Carolina/007270/2008 H1N1 32 64 8 16 <2 <2
A/swine/Iowa/003479/2009
H1N1
64
64
32
32
2
<2
Avian isolates
A/mallard/Alberta/66/2007 H1N4 64 64 32 32 16 <2
A/mallard/Alberta/496/2008 H1N4 64 64 32 32 16 <2

*HAU, hemagglutination units.
†Titers are expressed as the reciprocal of the highest virus dilution that yields complete HA agglutination.
‡Neu5Acα2,6Gal > Neu5Acα2,3Gal.
§Neu5Acα2,6Gal < Neu5Acα2,3Gal.
¶Neu5Gc2,3Gal.
#Neu5Gcα2,6Gal > Neu5Gcα2,3Gal.

Main Article

1These authors contributed equally to this article.

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