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Volume 16, Number 3—March 2010


Climate Warming and Tick-borne Encephalitis, Slovakia

Martin Lukan, Eva Bullova, and Branislav Petko
Author affiliations: University of Žilina, Tatranská Javorina, Slovakia (M. Lukan); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovakia (M. Lukan, E. Bullova, B. Petko); Catholic University Ružomberok Faculty of Health, Ružomberok, Slovakia (B. Petko)

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Table 1

Nonparametric test and test of stationarity for mean altitude and mean annual air temperature with regard to TBE, Slovakia, 1980–2004*

Data Test values
RS p value† KPSS p value†
Mean annual air temperature 0.55 0.01 0.56 <0.05
Mean TBE altitude 0.87 <0.001 0.86 <0.01

*TBE, tick-borne encephalitis; Rs, Spearman rank correlation test, a nonparametric test; KPSS, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test, a test of stationarity (no change with time).
†Probability of adopting the null hypothesis of randomness (Spearman RS) and stationarity (KPSS).

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