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Volume 16, Number 4—April 2010

Research

Use of Norovirus Genotype Profiles to Differentiate Origins of Foodborne Outbreaks

Linda VerhoefComments to Author , Harry Vennema, Wilfrid van Pelt, David Lees, Hendriek Boshuizen, Kathleen Henshilwood, Marion Koopmans, and on behalf of the Food-Borne Viruses in Europe Network1

Author affiliations: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (L. Verhoef, H. Vennema, W. van Pelt, H. Boshuizen, M. Koopmans); Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Weymouth, UK (D. Lees, K. Henshilwood); 1Additional members of the Food-Borne Viruses in Europe Network are listed at the end of this article.

Main Article

Table 1

Number of norovirus strains detected in samples from humans, bivalve mollusks, and food, 1999–2004*

Genotypes
Human surveillance, no. strains
Bivalve monitoring, no. strains Total no. strains
Pol-based Cap-based FB-food FB-feces FHB PB UN
Genogroups
I.1 I.1 1 8 0 5 18 0 32
I.2 0 6 0 1 32 8 47
I.3 I.3 0 8 3 16 80 13 120
I.4 I.4 9 8 1 8 46 86 158
I.5 0 0 0 1 5 3 9
I.6 I.6 2 3 1 21 17 25 69
I.7 0 1 0 0 7 2 10
NA I.a NA I.a 0 1 0 0 4 0 5
II.1 0 5 2 12 94 7 120
II.2 II.2 0 13 1 27 66 0 107
II.3 0 1 0 1 38 11 51
II.3R II.3 0 1 0 1 41 2 45
II.4 II.4 5 47 9 681 584 63 1,389
II.5 0 3 0 6 12 0 21
II.8 1 0 1 1 13 0 16
NA II.a 0 0 0 2 7 0 9
NA II.c 0 2 0 8 31 1 42
NA II.d 0 1 0 3 8 0 12
IV.1


0
2
0
1
8
0
11
Recombinants
NA II.b II.1, II.2, II.3 4 23 1 100 200 63 391
II.1 II.10 0 0 0 8 19 11 38
II.7 II.6, II.7 2 18 1 19 116 0 156
Total 24 151 20 922 1,446 295 2,858

*Poly, polymerase; cap, capsid; FB-food, foodborne-food, i.e., an outbreak was reported to be caused by food and the outbreak strain was detected in food; FB-feces, foodborne-feces, i.e., an outbreak was reported to be caused by food and the outbreak strain was detected in human feces only; FHB, food handler–borne, i.e., an outbreak was reported to be caused by an infected food handler contaminating the food and the outbreak strain was detected in human feces; PB, person-borne, i.e., an outbreak was reported to be caused by person-to-person transmission and the outbreak strain was detected in human feces; UN, unknown, i.e., the mode of transmission was not reported or was reported to be unknown and the outbreak strain was detected in human feces.

Main Article

1Members of the Food-Borne Viruses in Europe Network: B. Böttiger, K. Mølbak, C. Johnsen (Denmark); K.-H. von Bonsdorff, L. Maunula, M. Kuusi (Finland); P. Pothier, K. Balay, J. Kaplon, G. Belliot, S. Le Guyader (France); E. Schreier, K. Stark, J. Koch, M. Höhne (Germany); G. Szücs, G. Reuter, K. Krisztalovics (Hungary); Ireland: M. Lynch, B. Foley, P. McKeown, S. Coughlan (Ireland); E. Duizer, A. Kroneman, Y. van Duynhoven (the Netherlands); K. Vainio, K. Nygard, G. Kapperud (Norway); M. Poljsak-Prijatelj, D. Barlic-Maganja, A. Hocevar Grom (Slovenia); F. Ruggeri, I. Di Bartolo (Italy); A Bosch, A. Dominguez, J. Buesa, A. Sanchez Fauquier, G. Hernández-Pezzi (Spain); K.-O. Hedlund, Y. Andersson, M. Thorhagen, M. Lysén, M. Hjertqvist (Sweden); D. Brown, B. Adak, J. Gray, J. Harris, M. Iturriza (United Kingdom).

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