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Volume 16, Number 4—April 2010

Research

Use of Norovirus Genotype Profiles to Differentiate Origins of Foodborne Outbreaks

Linda VerhoefComments to Author , Harry Vennema, Wilfrid van Pelt, David Lees, Hendriek Boshuizen, Kathleen Henshilwood, Marion P. Koopmans, and on behalf of the Food-Borne Viruses in Europe Network1

Author affiliations: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (L. Verhoef, H. Vennema, W. van Pelt, H. Boshuizen, M. Koopmans); Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Weymouth, UK (D. Lees, K. Henshilwood); 1Additional members of the Food-Borne Viruses in Europe Network are listed at the end of this article.

Main Article

Table 2

ρ1, ρ2, and Cramer V results with simulated p values (20,000 replications) of norovirus 6 genotype patterns as detected in routinely tested bivalve shellfish and during norovirus outbreaks, 1999–-2004*

Source FB-food 
(p value) FB-feces 
(p value) FHB 
(p value) PB 
(p value) UN 
(p value) Bivalve mollusk 
(p value)
FB-food
ρ1 1.00 0.48 (0.02) 0.40 (0.07) 0.43 (0.04) 0.48 (0.02) 0.91 (<0.01)
ρ2 0.46 (0.03) −0.15 (0.51) 0.34 (0.12) 0.24 (0.26) 0.47 (0.03)
Cramer V

0.47 (0.01)
0.62 (0.04)
0.48 (<0.01)
0.26 (<0.01)
0.41 (0.02)
FB-feces
ρ1 1.00 0.93 (<0.01) 0.92 (<0.01) 0.96 (<0.01) 0.53 (0.01)
ρ2 0.40 (0.06) 0.55 (<0.01) 0.66 (<0.01) 0.69 (<0.01)
Cramer V


0.34 (0.41)
0.43 (<0.01)
0.19 (<0.01)
0.57 (<0.01)
FHB
ρ1 1.00 0.97 (<0.01) 0.93 (<0.01) 0.43 (<0.05)
ρ2 0.22 (0.32) 0.39 (0.07) 0.47 (0.03)
Cramer V



0.25 (<0.01)
0.09 (0.75)
0.46 (<0.01)
PB
ρ1 1.00 0.96 (<0.01) 0.51 (0.01)
ρ2 0.61 (<0.01) 0.53 (0.01)
Cramer V




0.42 (<0.01)
0.63 (0.01)
UN
ρ1 1.00 0.59 (<0.01)
ρ2 0.65 (<0.01)
Cramer V





0.48 (<0.01)
Bivalve mollusk 1.00

1 = based on frequencies; ρ2 = based on logarithm of frequencies; Cramer V, χ2 test with simulated p values; FB-food, foodborne-food, i.e., an outbreak was reported to be caused by food and the outbreak strain was detected in food; FB-feces, foodborne-feces, i.e., an outbreak was reported to be caused by food and the outbreak strain was detected in human feces only; FHB, food handler–borne, i.e., an outbreak was reported to be caused by an infected food handler contaminating the food and the outbreak strain was detected in human feces; PB, person-borne, i.e., an outbreak was reported to be caused by person-to-person transmission and the outbreak; strain was detected in human feces; UN, unknown, i.e., the mode of transmission was not reported or was reported to be unknown and the outbreak strain was detected in human feces.

Main Article

1Members of the Food-Borne Viruses in Europe Network: B. Böttiger, K. Mølbak, C. Johnsen (Denmark); K.-H. von Bonsdorff, L. Maunula, M. Kuusi (Finland); P. Pothier, K. Balay, J. Kaplon, G. Belliot, S. Le Guyader (France); E. Schreier, K. Stark, J. Koch, M. Höhne (Germany); G. Szücs, G. Reuter, K. Krisztalovics (Hungary); Ireland: M. Lynch, B. Foley, P. McKeown, S. Coughlan (Ireland); E. Duizer, A. Kroneman, Y. van Duynhoven (the Netherlands); K. Vainio, K. Nygard, G. Kapperud (Norway); M. Poljsak-Prijatelj, D. Barlic-Maganja, A. Hocevar Grom (Slovenia); F. Ruggeri, I. Di Bartolo (Italy); A Bosch, A. Dominguez, J. Buesa, A. Sanchez Fauquier, G. Hernández-Pezzi (Spain); K.-O. Hedlund, Y. Andersson, M. Thorhagen, M. Lysén, M. Hjertqvist (Sweden); D. Brown, B. Adak, J. Gray, J. Harris, M. Iturriza (United Kingdom).

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