Figure. Phylogeny of Toscana viruses (TOSVs) of diverse origin. Partial small (S) and medium (M) segment sequences of interest were aligned by using ClustalW (www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/clustalw2/index.html), and neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony trees were generated by using 2,000 bootstrap replicates with MEGA version 4 (6). Highly similar topologies and confidence values were derived by all methods, and a neighbor-joining tree generated from a comparison of 424 nt of the M segment polyprotein gene open reading frame is displayed here. GenBank accession numbers appear after the location and source of isolation for each taxon. Scale bar represents the number of nucleotide substitutions per site. Of interest, the 2009 Sicilian TOSV described in this study (Sicily, human, 2009) aggregates with extreme support along with other Italian viruses, including an isolate that was derived from sandflies in Palermo, Sicily, in 1993.