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Volume 17, Number 1—January 2011

Dispatch

Serodiagnosis of Primary Infections with Human Parvovirus 4, Finland

Anne Lahtinen, Pia Kivelä, Lea Hedman, Arun Kumar, Anu Kantele, Maija Lappalainen, Kirsi Liitsola, Matti Ristola, Eric Delwart, Colin Sharp, Peter Simmonds, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, and Klaus HedmanComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (A. Lahtinen, L. Hedman, A. Kumar, A. Kantele, M. Söderlund-Venermo, K. Hedman); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (P. Kivelä, L. Hedman, A. Kantele, M. Lappalainen, M. Ristola, K. Hedman); National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki (K. Liitsola); Blood System Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA (E. Delwart); University of California, San Francisco (E. Delwart); University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, UK (C. Sharp, P. Simmonds)

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Table 2

Characteristics of PARV4 IgG–positive and IgG–negative HIV-infected injection drug users, Finland*

Characteristic IgG positive, n = 61 IgG negative, n = 17 p value†
Age, y, median (range) 35 (17–61) 31 (21–55) 0.069
Male sex
44/61 (72)
12/17 (71)
1.000
Main drug was amphetamine‡ 38/61 (62) 10/17 (59) 0.786
Duration of injection, y, median (range) 10 (0–36) 7 (0–30) 0.259
Duration of injection >10 y
45/59 (76)
7/17 (44)
0.029
History of imprisonment 49/61 (80) 9/17 (53) 0.031
Education <9 y
52/59 (88)
10/17 (59)
0.011
HCV antibody positive 59/60 (98) 14/15 (93) 0.362
HBsAg positive 3/61 (5) 3/17 (18) 0.114
HBc IgG positive 46/60 (77) 9/17 (56) 0.124
Used antiretroviral therapy§ 29/61 (48) 4/17 (24) 0.099
CD4 cell count/µL, median§
303
323
0.168
Present situation
Unstable living conditions (no permanent address) 35/59 (60) 5/15 (33) 0.088
Employed‡
0/53 (0)
3/16 (19)
0.009
Risk behavior
Loaned needles or syringes 49/59 (83) 9/16 (56) 0.040
Borrowed needles or syringes 56/58 (97) 15/16 (94) 0.524
Had sexually transmitted diseases 37/57 (65) 7/17 (41) 0.097
Had commercial sex
18/61 (30)
8/15 (53)
0.127
Risk behavior past 6 mo
Used drugs 48/61 (79) 8/17 (47) 0.016
Used injection drugs 46/61 (75) 8/17 (47) 0.037
Used condoms inconsistently 25/61 (41) 7/16 (44) 1.000
Had >2 sex partners 16/61 (26) 7/17 (41) 0.244

*Values are no. positive/no. tested (%) unless otherwise indicated. PARV4, parvovirus 4; Ig, immunoglobulin; HCV, hepatitis C virus; HBsAg, hepatitis B surface antigen; HBc, hepatitis B core antigen;
†By Fisher exact test or Mann-Whitney U test. Values in boldface are significant.
‡At the time of interview.
§Closest to the sampling for PARV4 tests.

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