Endurance, Refuge, and Reemergence of Dengue Virus Type 2, Puerto Rico, 1986–2007
Kate L. McElroy1, Gilberto A. Santiago1, Niall J. Lennon, Bruce W. Birren, Matthew R. Henn1, and Jorge L. Muñoz-Jordán1
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Juan, Puerto Rico (K.L. McElroy, G.A. Santiago, J.L. Muñoz-Jordán); Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (N.J. Lennon, B.W. Birren, M.R. Henn)
Figure 1. Historic overview of dengue, Puerto Rico, 1986–2007. A) Number of suspected, clinically defined cases of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever by year reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Dengue Branch. B) Percentage of identifications of each serotype relative to the total of positive serotype identifications by using tissue culture isolation or reverse transcription–PCR per year. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 identifications each year. Black, DENV-1; blue, DENV-2; white, DENV-3; red, DENV-4. C) Number of partially sequenced (E gene) autochthonous Puerto Rican isolates reported by previous studies (14,20) and whole genome sequences obtained in the present study by year of their corresponding case presentation. D) Bayesian coalescent inference of population dynamics and genetic diversity by using the Bayesian Skyline plot. Markov Chain Monte Carlo from BEAST version 1.4.7 (www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/114). Sampling procedures were used to estimate posterior distribution of DENV-2 genetic diversity in an effective population through the study period on the basis of full genome sequence data. x axis, time in years through the study period; y axis, product of the effective population size (relative genetic diversity) and generation length in years; black line, median estimate; blue shadow, 95% highest probability density.
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