Figure 1. Agents that cause foodborne illness. STEC, Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli; ETEC, enterotoxigenic E. coli. *For most of these pathogens, the major manifestation is gastroenteritis. For some, i.e., Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, Trichinella spp., and Vibrio vulnificus, some persons have diarrhea or vomiting, and the sign may initially look like those of gastroenteritis. †Most of these agents have major manifestations that do not typically include gastroenteritis. Diarrhea and vomiting can occur with some of these pathogens, e.g., Clostridium botulinum and hepatitis A virus, but are relatively uncommon. Only invasive Listeria monocytogenes infection, not diarrheal illness, is included in our estimates for known foodborne pathogens (1).