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Volume 17, Number 10—October 2011

Dispatch

Group B Streptococcus and HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Malawi, 2008–2010

Katherine J. GrayComments to Author , George Kafulafula1, Mary Matemba, Mercy Kamdolozi, Gladys Membe, and Neil French

Author affiliations: College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi (K.J. Gray, G. Kafulafula, M. Kamdolozi, G. Membe); Karonga Prevention Study, Karonga, Malawi (M. Matemba, N. French); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK (N. French)

Main Article

Table 2

Associations with GBS carriage among 340 pregnant women with and without HIV infection, Malawi, 2008–2010*

Variable GBS carriage, no. positive for variable/no. total (%) OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
All study participants 390/1,857 (21.0)
HIV-negative participants 313/1,441 (21.7) Reference Reference
HIV-positive participants
77/397 (19.4)
0.88 (0.66–1.17)
0.84 (0.63–1.12)
Age group, y†
16–19 68/345 (19.7) 2.29 (0.68–7.76) 1.41 (0.40–4.92)
20–24 122/582 (21.0) 2.48 (0.74–8.28) 1.96 (0.58–6.63)
25–29 113/498 (22.7) 2.74 (0.82–9.18) 2.43 (0.72–8.18)
30–34 60/261 (23.0) 2.79 (0.82–9.48) 2.59 (0.76–8.88)
35–39 24/122 (19.7) 2.29 (0.64–8.15) 2.03 (0.56–7.33)
>40
3/31 (9.7)
Reference
Reference
First pregnancy 137 (24.0) 1.30 (1.01–1.65) 1.62 (1.19–2.19)
Second or subsequent pregnancy
244 (19.6)
Reference
Reference
Recruited during rainy season 235 (22.4) 1.18 (0.94–1.50)
Recruited during nonrainy season
155 (19.6)
Reference

Birth weight <2.5 kg
No 307 (21.5) Reference
Yes
71 (19.4)
0.88 (0.65–1.17)

Multiple birth
No 381 (21.3) Reference
Yes
9 (18.0)
0.81 (0.34–1.71)

HIV-positive subgroup‡
Antiretroviral treatment
No 67 (20.4) Reference Reference
Yes 15 (18.1) 0.91 (0.45–1.75) 1.14 (0.58–2.26)§
CD4 cell count/mm3
<200 9 (14.1) Reference Reference
200–499 34 (17.2) 1.27 (0.57–2.81) 1.30 (0.58–2.92)§
>500 33 (28.2) 2.40 (1.07–5.41) 2.55 (1.10–5.90)

*GBS, group B streptococcus; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; –, not applicable. Adjusted OR derived from logistic regression by use of backward stepwise approach. Final model retained variables with p value <0.1 along with age group and parity because of their known association with GBS carriage.
†χ2 test for linear trend, p = 0.93.
‡χ2 test for linear trend, p = 0.01.
§Adjusted model includes age group, first pregnancy vs. second or subsequent pregnancies; antiretroviral treatment, and CD4 count for the HIV-positive subgroup.
¶19 participants had no CD4 count available.

*GBS, group B streptococcus; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; –, not applicable. Adjusted OR derived from logistic regression by use of backward stepwise approach. Final model retained variables with p value <0.1 along with age group and parity because of their known association with GBS carriage.
†χ2 test for linear trend, p = 0.93.
‡χ2 test for linear trend, p = 0.01.
§Adjusted model includes age group, first pregnancy vs. second or subsequent pregnancies; antiretroviral treatment, and CD4 count for the HIV-positive subgroup.
¶19 participants had no CD4 count available.

*GBS, group B streptococcus; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; –, not applicable. Adjusted OR derived from logistic regression by use of backward stepwise approach. Final model retained variables with p value <0.1 along with age group and parity because of their known association with GBS carriage.
†χ2 test for linear trend, p = 0.93.
‡χ2 test for linear trend, p = 0.01.
§Adjusted model includes age group, first pregnancy vs. second or subsequent pregnancies; antiretroviral treatment, and CD4 count for the HIV-positive subgroup.
¶19 participants had no CD4 count available.

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1Deceased.

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