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Volume 17, Number 10—October 2011

Dispatch

Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Women, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Max R. O’DonnellComments to Author , Jennifer Zelnick, Lise Werner, Iqbal Master, Marian Loveday, C. Robert Horsburgh, and Nesri Padayatchi
Author affiliations: Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA (M.R. O’Donnell); Centre for AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, Durban, South Africa (M.R. O’Donnell, L. Werner, N. Padayatchi); Touro College Graduate School of Social Work, New York, New York, USA (J. Zelnick); King George V Hospital, Sydenham, South Africa (I. Master); Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa (M. Loveday); Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (C.R. Horsburgh)

Main Article

Table 2

Risk factors for XDR TB and MDR TB among adults >18 years of age admitted to King George V Hospital with drug-resistant TB, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2003–2008*

Risk factor No. (%) with XDR TB, n = 377 No. (%) with MDR TB, n = 4,137 OR (95% CI)
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Sex
F 221 (58.6) 1,987 (48.0) 1.53 (1.24–1.90) 1.38 (1.11–1.73)
M
156 (41.4)
2,150 (52.0)
Reference
Reference
Age, y†
18–35 204 (54.1) 2,265 (54.7) 0.98 (0.79–1.20)
>36
173 (45.9)
1,872 (45.3)
Reference

HIV status‡
Positive 259 (68.7) 2,255 (54.7) 1.43 (1.10–1.87) 1.19 (0.90–1.56)
Negative 77 (20.4) 959 (23.2) Reference Reference
Unknown
41 (10.9)
923 (22.3)
0.55 (0.38–0.82)
0.69 (0.46–1.04)
Previous TB treatment
Yes 359 (97.6) 3,755 (94.6) 2.27 (1.16–4.47) 2.16 (1.09–4.28)
No
9 (2.5)
215 (5.4)
Reference
Reference
HIV positive and ART‡
Yes 149 (57.5) 1,047 (46.4) 1.56 (1.21–2.03)
No
110 (42.5)
1,208 (53.6)
Reference

Year of admission
2003 6 (1.6) 460 (11.1) Reference Reference
2004 5 (1.3) 424 (10.2) 0.90 (0.27–2.98) 0.96 (0.27–3.33)
2005 36 (9.5) 519 (12.5) 5.32 (2.22–12.74) 5.03 (1.94–12.99)
2006 78 (20.7) 630 (15.2) 9.49 (4.10–21.97) 9.26 (3.71–23.13)
2007 137 (36.3) 1,046 (25.3) 10.04 (4.40–22.91) 9.14 (3.70–22.60)
2008 115 (30.5) 1,058 (25.6) 8.33 (3.64–19.07) 7.45 (3.00–18.50)

*XDR, extensively drug-resistant; TB, tuberculosis; MDR, multidrug-resistant; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; ART, antiretroviral therapy.
†Median age (interquartile range): MDR TB patients 34 y (28–42 y); XDR TB patients, 35 y (29–42 y).
‡Univariate analysis restricted to HIV-positive persons only. ART use excluded from multivariate analysis because persons receiving ART must be HIV infected.

*XDR, extensively drug-resistant; TB, tuberculosis; MDR, multidrug-resistant; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; ART, antiretroviral therapy.
†Median age (interquartile range): MDR TB patients 34 y (28–42 y); XDR TB patients, 35 y (29–42 y).
‡Univariate analysis restricted to HIV-positive persons only. ART use excluded from multivariate analysis because persons receiving ART must be HIV infected.

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