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Volume 17, Number 10—October 2011

Dispatch

Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in Greece, 2010

Kostas DanisComments to Author , Anna Papa, George Theocharopoulos, Georgios Dougas, Maria Athanasiou, Marios Detsis, Agoritsa Baka, Theodoros Lytras, Kassiani Mellou, Stefanos Bonovas, and Takis Panagiotopoulos
Author affiliations: Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, Greece (K. Danis, G. Theocharopoulos, G. Dougas, M. Athanasiou, M. Detsis, A. Baka, T. Lytras, K. Mellou, S. Bonovas, T. Panagiotopoulos); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece (A. Papa); National School of Public Health, Athens (T. Panagiotopoulos)

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Table 2

Predictive factors of death for 197 patients with West Nile neuroinvasive disease analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis, Greece, July–October 2010*

Characteristic No. deaths, n = 33† Case-fatality rate, % Crude risk ratio (95% CI) Adjusted risk ratio‡ (95% CI)
Age group, y
40–59 2.50 Reference Reference
60–69 2 6.90 2.76 (0.26–28.99) 2.72 (0.26–28.40)
70–79 15 17.65 7.06 (0.97–51.59) 6.13 (0.83–45.17)
>80
15
34.88
13.95 (1.93–100.9)
11.41 (1.56–83.52)
Sex
F 10 11.36 Reference NA
M
23
21.10
1.86 (0.93–3.69)
NA
Underlying diseases
None 2 3.92 Reference NA
>1
31
21.23
5.41 (1.34–21.82)
NA
Hypertension
No 19 15.70 Reference NA
Yes
14
18.42
1.17 (0.63–2.20)
NA
Heart disease
No 18 12.00 Reference Reference
Yes
15
32.61
2.72 (1.49–4.95)
2.03 (1.14–3.64)
Diabetes
No 23 15.44 Reference NA
Yes
10
20.83
1.35 (0.69–2.63)
NA
Immunosuppression
No 31 17.42 Reference NA
Yes
2
10.53
0.60 (0.16–2.33)
NA
Cancer
No 29 16.11 Reference NA
Yes
4
23.53
1.46 (0.58–3.66)
NA
Stroke
No 28 15.30 Reference NA
Yes
5
35.71
2.33 (1.07–5.10)
NA
Renal failure
No 31 16.40 Reference NA
Yes 2 25.00 1.52 (0.44–5.28) NA

*CI, confidence interval; NA, not applicable.
†Two additional patients with nonneuroinvasive disease died, and those deaths were not included in this analysis.
‡In logistic regression analysis, initial models included all variables for which the p value was <0.05 or the odds ratio was >1.1 or <0.90. Therefore, all variables were included in the initial models. Variables were removed 1 at a time depending on results of statistical testing (p<0.05), by using the likelihood-ratio test. All variables that remained significant in the final logistic regression model were included in the binomial regression model for the estimation of adjusted risk ratios.
§ Belonged to the 40–49-year age group.

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