Figure 1. Yearly number of cholera cases in the African Great Lakes region (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda), 1978–2008. Red bars indicate years with large increases in cholera cases. Numbers on arrows represent the increase factor in cholera cases. Warm climatic events (indicated by light orange background) had a duration of >5 months and a sea surface temperature increase of >0.5°C simultaneously in Niño 3 (eastern Pacific, from 90°W–150°W and 5°S–5°N) and Niño 4 (western Pacific, from 160°E–150°W and 5°S–5°N) regions.