Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011
Knowledge of Avian Influenza (H5N1) among Poultry Workers, Hong Kong, China
|Virus can infect|
|Wild birds? [Y] / Live poultry [Y] / Domestic birds? [Y]||65.4/60.1/44.8|
|Humans? [Y] / Other animals? [Y]||50.0/17.0|
|Virus can be transmitted from 1 place to another on|
|Bird feces? [Y] / Poultry cages? [Y] / Bird feed? [Y] / Clothing and shoes? [Y]||82.7/26.8/16.9/11.9|
|Humans can be infected by|
|Eating behavior: eating poultry cooked well done? [N] / Eating runny eggs? [Y]||69.1/14.0|
|Infected bird contact: bird feces? [Y] / Breathing near birds? [Y] / Swimming with birds? [Y]||59.7/22.1/19.4|
|Occupational risks: slaughtering poultry? [Y] / Defeathering poultry? [Y]||29.1/14.9|
|Symptoms of infection in humans|
|Dermatologic: Hair loss? [N] / Rash? [N]||99.4/98.2|
|Influenza-like: Fever? [Y] / Cough? [Y] / Muscle pain? [Y] / Runny nose? [Y]||89.8/67.1/67.1/54.5|
|Respiratory: Difficulty in breathing? [Y] / Crackling breathing sounds? [Y]||59.2/18.8|
|Other: Vomiting? [Y] / Diarrhea? [Y] / Nose bleeding? [Y]||25.0/14.3/2.9|
|There have been reported human cases|
|Somewhere? [Y] / Asia? [Y] / People’s Republic of China? [Y] / Hong Kong? [Y]||96.8/91.1/78.2/72.6|
|100% effective, commercially available vaccines exists|
|For birds? [N] / For humans? [N]||80.2/67.2|
|Duration virus can survive outside body|
|<6 h / 6h– 24h / several days / [>1 wk]||29.0/22.7/18.0/30.3|
|Mortality rate for humans|
|Almost everyone survives / <50% / [50%–89% die] / >90% / don’t know||57.9/26.3/13.5/1.2/1.2|
|Overall knowledge score, range 0–36, mean, SD||6.7, 6.43|
|Knowledge score multivariable linear regression model, β (95% CI), p value‡§|
|Educational level, primary or less = referent, F1–3, >F4||0.97 (0.07–1.87), 0.035|
|Household monthly income >20,000 Hong Kong dollars||1.61 (0.09–3.13), 0.038|
|Received prevention information from the Internet||4.35 (2.58–6.13), <0.0001|
|Received prevention information from other sources¶||3.86 (1.10–6.62), 0.006|
|In the past month, how frequently did you? Almost always / Sometimes? / Never?|
|Handle live chickens with bare hands||37.5/27.5/35.0|
|Handle dead chickens with bare hands||10.3/27.4/62.3|
|Wear eye protection when handling chickens||7.3/22.3/70.4|
|Wear face mask when handling chickens||25.3/35.2/39.5|
|Wear PPE (e.g., apron, mask) when handling chickens||51.2/22.4/26.4|
|Sterilize your clothes||52.9/31.8/15.3|
|Wash hands with soap after killing chickens||65.2/24.6/10.2|
|Overall preventive practice score, mean ± SD (range)#||8.16 ± 3.26 (0–14)|
|Practice score multivariable linear regression model, β (95% CI), p value‡**|
|>10 y working in the poultry industry; <10 y is referent||1.45 (0.39–2.51), 0.010|
|Retail shop worker; wholesale is referent||1.11(0.08–2.14), 0.034|
|Below median perceived barriers score; above median is referent||1.44 (0.43–2.46), 0.006|
*Values are % responding correctly unless otherwise indicated. Y, yes; N, no; PPE, personal protection equipment; CI, confidence interval.
†Correct answers are indicated in [brackets].
‡Variance inflation factors (VIF) diagnostics indicated no evidence of colinearity (all VIF <1.2) among variables in final models. Model fit analysis showed that standardized residuals of models were normally distributed and not associated with standardized predicted values.
§Final model constant for knowledge score, α (95% CI) 13.70 (11.8–15.6). The following candidate covariates had the following β coefficients and p values before removal from knowledge score model: age, β = 0.25, p = 0.57; <10 years in poultry industry, β = 1.08, p = 0.20; newspaper information source, β = 0.79, p = 0.284; health workers information source, β = −1.06, p = 0.441; poster information source, β = −0.04, p = 0.650.
¶Other health information sources included health talks, seminars, school, radio, flyers, and other poultry workers.
#Scored 2 = always, 1 = sometimes, 0 = never for computing summative score. Items 1 and 2 about chickens are reverse coded.
**Final model constant for practice score, α (95% CI) 6.18 (5.08–7.29). The following candidate covariates had the following β coefficients and p values before removal from practice score model: monthly income >20,000 Hong Kong dollars, β = −0.036, p = 0.956; above median avian influenza (H5N1) susceptibility score, β = 0.171, p = 0.797; above median avian influenza (H5N1) perceived severity score, β = −0.965, p = 0.143.
Medline reports the first author should be "Olsen SJ" not "Olsen S" in reference 10 "Olsen, Laosiritaworn, Pattanasin, Prapasiri, Dowel, 2005".
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