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Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011

Research

A Pilot Study of Host Genetic Variants Associated with Influenza-associated Deaths among Children and Young Adults1

Jill M. FerdinandsComments to Author , Amy M. Denison, Nicole F. Dowling, Heather A. Jost, Marta L. Gwinn, Lindy Liu, Sherif R. Zaki, and David K. Shay
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Main Article

Table 2

Genotype and minor allele frequencies among 105 children and young adults who died of influenza, United States, 1998–99 through 2007–08 influenza seasons*

Gene Variant Genotype Genotype frequency, no. (%) case-patients
All, n = 105 White, n = 64 Black, n = 18 Asian, n = 7
TNF rs1800629 −308GG 74 (70) 47 (73) 10 (56) 6 (86)
−308GA 30 (29) 16 (25) 8 (44) 1 (14)
−308AA 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 0
A allele 0.152 0.141 0.222 0.071
rs1800750 −555GG 101 (96) 62 (97) 16 (89) 7 (100)
−555GA 4 (4) 2 (3) 2 (11) 0
−555AA 0 0 0 0
A allele 0.019 0.016 0.056 0
rs361525 −238GG 95 (90) 59 (92) 14 (78) 6 (86)
−238GA 10 (10) 5 (8) 4 (22) 1 (14)
−238AA 0 0 0 0


A allele
0.048
0.039
0.111
0.071
MBL2 rs1800450 (B variant) 27GG 77 (73) 47 (73) 15 (83) 5 (71)
27GA 27 (26) 17 (27) 3 (17) 2 (29)
27AA 1 (1) 0 0 0
A allele 0.138 0.133 0.083 0.143
rs1800451 (C variant)† 18GG 95 (90) 61 (95) 12 (67) 7 (100)
18GA 9 (9) 3 (5) 5 (28) 0
18AA 1 (1) 0 1 (6) 0
A allele 0.052 0.023 0.194 0
rs5030737 (D variant) 34CC 95 (90) 55 (86) 17 (94) 7 (100)
34CT 9 (9) 8 (13) 1 (6) 0
34TT 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 0
T allele 0.052 0.078 0.028 0
rs7096206 (X/Y variant) −221CC 71 (68) 43 (67) 14 (78) 4 (57)
−221CG 32 (30) 20 (31) 3 (17) 3 (43)
−221GG 2 (2) 1 (2) 1 (6) 0
G allele 0.171 0.172 0.139 0.214
rs11003125 (H/L variant) −550CC 43 (41) 21 (33) 12 (67) 2 (29)
−550CG 46 (44) 34 (53) 6 (33) 4 (57)
−550GG 16 (15) 9 (14) 0 1 (14)
G allele 0.371 0.406 0.167 0.429
Pooled structural variants AA 59 (56) 37 (58) 8 (44) 5 (71)
AO 41 (39) 24 (38) 9 (50) 2 (29)
OO 5 (5) 1 (2) 1 (6) 0
Truncated haplotypes YA/YA 36 (34) 21 (33) 5 (28) 3 (43)
XA/YA 21 (20) 15 (23) 2 (11) 2 (29)
XA/XA 2 (2) 1 (2) 1 (6) 0
YA/O 30 (29) 19 (30) 8 (44) 1 (14)
XA/O 11 (10) 5 (8) 1 (6) 1 (14)
O/O 5 (5) 3 (5) 1 (6) 0
MBL production Low 16 (15) 8 (13) 2 (11) 1 (14)
Intermediate 32 (31) 20 (31) 9 (50) 1 (14)
High 57 (54) 36 (56) 7 (39) 5 (71)

*Cases include 16 patients with missing/unknown or other race. Per common designation, for MBL2, A refers to the wild-type structural allele, O refers to any of the 3 variant structural alleles, and O/O refers to any combination of structural variant alleles. Low producers included truncated haplotypes O/O and XA/O. MBL2, mannose-binding lectin gene.
†p<0.01 by Fisher exact test of difference in proportion across racial group.

Main Article

1Portions of this study were presented at the Options for the Control of Influenza VII meeting, September 3–7, 2010, Hong Kong.

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