Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Volume 17, Number 2—February 2011

Dispatch

Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Dead Wild Birds, South Korea, 2005–2008

Jung-Yong YehComments to Author , Hyun-Ju Kim, Jin-Ju Nah, Hang Lee, Young-Jun Kim, Jin-San Moon, In-Soo Cho, In-Soo Choi, Chang-Seon Song, and Joong-Bok Lee
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea (J.-Y. Yeh, H-J. Kim, J.-J. Nah, J.-S. Moon, I.-S. Cho); Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea (H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim); Konkuk University, Seoul (I.-S. Choi, C.-S.Song, J.-B. Lee)

Main Article

Table A1

Migration status (seasonality) and abundance of 715 dead wild birds (72 species) with West Nile virus infection, South Korea, 2005–2008

Family, common name Species No. samples* Migration status†
Accipitridae
Cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus 1 W3, RV3
Common buzzard Buteo buteo 8 P3, W3, SV3
Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus 1 P3, RV2
Common kingfisher Alcedo atthis 3 S2, R(m)5
Black-capped kingfisher
Halcyon pileata
2
S3
Anatidae
Baikal teal Anas formosa 6 W1, SV3
Pintail Anas acuta 2 P2, W2
White-fronted goose Anser albifrons 6 P1, W2, SV2
Common teal Anas crecca 7 W2, RV1
Parrot Lorius domicella 1 Exotic
Mandarin duck Aix galericulata 2 R(m)3, W3
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 60 P1, W1, R4
Bean goose Anser fabalis 2 P1, W2, SV2
Spot-billed duck
Anas poecilorhyncha
16
P1, W1, R2
Ardeidae
Striated heron Butorides striatus 3 S3
Great egret Casmerodius albus 2 W3, SV1
Little egret Egretta garzetta 8 S2, W4
Gray heron Ardea cinerea 9 S3, W3
Great egret Egretta alba 4 S2, WV1
Intermediate egret Egretta intermedia 1 S3
Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax 5 S3, R4
Buff-backed heron, cattle egret
Bubulcus ibis
10
S2
Caprimulgidae
Gray nightjar
Caprimulgus indicus
5
P3, S3
Ciconiidae
Oriental white stork
Ciconia boyciana
1
W5, SV3
Columbidae
Rufous turtle dove Streptopelia orientalis 19 R1, P3
Hill pigeon Columba rupestris rupestris 39 R5
Feral rock pigeon
Columba livia
3
R(m)2
Coraciidae
Broad-billed roller
Eurystomus orientalis
3
P3, S3
Corvidae
Black-billed magpie Pica pica 96 R(m)1
Azure-winged magpie Cyanopica cyana 1 R(m)2
Jay Garrulus glandarius 6 R(m)1
Jungle crow
Corvus macrorhynchos
3
R(m)2
Cuculidae
Oriental cuckoo Cuculus saturates 1 S2
Common cuckoo
Cuculus canorus
1
S1
Emberizidae
Rustic bunting
Emberiza rustica
2
P1, W1
Falconidae
Eurasian hobby Falco subbuteo 10 S3
Common kestrel
Falco tinnunculus
11
R(m)3, S2
Fringillidae
Eurasian siskin Carduelis spinus 1 P1, W1, SV3
Gray-capped greenfinch
Carduelis sinica ussuriensis
1
R(m)1, W2
Gaviidae
Red-throated diver
Gavia stellata
1
P3, W3
Hirundinidae
House swallow
Hirundo rustica
1
P1, S1, WV3
Laridae
Black-tailed gull Larus crassirostris 2 S2, W2
Herring gull
Larus argentatus
1
W2, RV1
Muscicapidae
Blue-and-white flycatcher
Cyanoptila cyanomela
1
P2, S2
Oriolidae
Black-naped oriole
Oriolus chinensis
2
P2, S2
Paradoxornithidae
Vinous-throated parrotbill
Paradoxornis webbiana
1
R(m)1
Paridae
Great tit
Parus major
2
R(m)1
Passeridae
Tree sparrow
Passer montanus
18
P3, W3, R5
Phasianidae
Golden pheasant Chrysolophus pictus 1 Exotic
Ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus 39 R1
Chicken Gallus gallus domesticus 1 R1
Korean black chicken
Gallus gallus var. domesticus
1
R1
Picidae
Great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major 1 R(m)2
Japanese pigmy woodpecker Dendrocopos kizuki 1 R1
Green woodpecker
Picus viridus
1
R(m)3
Procellariidae
Streaked shearwater
Calonectris leucomelas
1
S2
Pycnonotidae
Brown-eared bulbul
Hypsipetes amaurotis
11
R(m)1, S3, W3
Rallidae
Coot Fulica atra 1 W3, R4
Moorhen
Gallinula chlororpus
1
S4, R5
Scolopacidae
Woodcock Scolopax rusticola 6 P4, W5
Whimbrel
Numenius phaeopus variegatus
1
P3, WV3
Strigidae
Eurasian scops owl Otus scops stictonotus 33 P3, S3
Brown hawk owl Ninox scutulat 37 P4, S4
Eurasian eagle owl Bubo bubo 20 R(m)4
Tawny owl Strix aluco 1 R4
Long-eared owl Asio otus 2 P5, W5
Collared scops owl
Otus lempiji
7
R(m)3, W4
Sturnidae
Gray starling
Sturnus cineraceus
1
W2, R(m)2
Turdidae
Gray-backed thrush Turdus hortulorum 1 P3, S3
White`s thrush
Zoothera dauma
13
S2, W4
Zosteropidae
Japanese white-eye
Zosterops japonica japonica
1
R(m)3, P4
Unidentified

142

Total 715

*Samples were received from natural heritage centers, wildlife rescue organizations, and private veterinary practices.
†Letters are used in a wide range of combinations to suggest a species’ seasonality. R, resident; R(m), resident and partial migrant; P, passage migrant (i.e., spring, autumn, or both); W, winter visitor; S, summer visitor or summer resident. Numbers (1–5) are used to express estimated abundance since 1980: 1, numerous (>100,000 records or individuals); 2, rather common/locally common (10,000–100,000 records or individuals); 3, fairly common (1,000–<10,000 records or individuals); 4, uncommon or rather local (100–<1,000 records or individuals); 5, scarce or very local (recorded annually, with ≥100 records from 1980 to the present time and <100 records estimated to occur annually). For less regularly recorded species, V followed by a number (1–5) indicates all known records (from 1980 to the present time): V1, probable annual (25–99 records or individuals); V2, recorded scarcely annually, or less than annually (10–<25 records or individuals); V3, ≥10 records, n); V4, species last recorded >10 years ago; V5, species added to the Birds Korea Checklist since the past update (starting in October 2007). On occasion, these codes are also used with a prefix (e.g., W, S) to indicate that more abundant species also occur more rarely in a given season (between 1980 and the present time). For example, S3, WV3 indicates that a species that is fairly common in summer has also been recorded <10 times in mid-winter between 1980 and the present time. This manner of measuring migratory status (seasonality) and abundance is followed by The Birds Korea Checklist: 2009 (6).

Main Article

TOP