New Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Wild Birds, Qinghai, China
Yanbing Li, Liling Liu, Yi Zhang, Zhenhua Duan, Guobin Tian, Xianying Zeng, Jianzhong Shi, Licheng Zhang, and Hualan Chen
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Harbin, People’s Republic of China (Y. Li, L. Liu, Y. Zhang, Z. Duan, G. Tian, X. Zeng, J. Shi, H. Chen); Qinghai Provincial Center of Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, People’s Republic of China (L. Zhang)
Figure 2. Phylogenetic trees of hemagglutinin genes (nt 29–1,728) (A) and acidic polymerase genes (nt 25–2,151) of avian influenza viruses (H5N1) (B). Clade numbers are indicated on the right in panel A. Trees were constructed by using the PHYLIP program of ClustalX software version 1.81 (www.clustal.org), the neighbor-joining algorithm, and rooted to A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1/83(H5N2). Bootstrap analysis was performed with 1,000 replications. Viruses obtained in this study are shown in red, previously detected viruses that are closely related to avian influenza virus (H5N1) QH09 are shown in blue, and closely related viruses that were detected after the Qinghai wild bird outbreak in 2009 are shown in green. Dates of virus isolation are shown. Scale bars indicate nucleotide substitutions per site. GCG, great crested grebe; GBH, great black-headed gull; BH, brown-headed gull; GB, grebe; WS, whooper swan; CM, common magpie; BG, bean goose; RS, ruddy shelduck; BHG, bar-headed goose; LE, little egret; PK, pike; DK, duck; MD, Muscovy duck; TK, turkey; CK, chicken; GS, goose; CG, common goldendye.
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