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Volume 17, Number 2—February 2011

Research

Risk Factors for Cryptococcus gattii Infection, British Columbia, Canada

Laura MacDougallComments to Author , Murray Fyfe, Marc Romney, Mike Starr, and Eleni Galanis
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (L. MacDougall, M. Fyfe, M. Romney, M. Starr, E. Galanis); Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (L. MacDougall); Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (M. Fyfe); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (M. Fyfe, M. Romney, E. Galanis); St. Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver (M. Romney); Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (M. Starr)

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Table 1

ORs for risk factors for Cryptococcus gattii infection for 30 matched case-patient and general population sets, British Columbia, Canada, 1999–2007*

Risk factors
MOR (95% CI)
Medical
Lung conditions† 3.21 (1.08–9.52)
Pneumonia 2.71 (1.05–6.98)
Asthma 0.45 (0.12–1.66)
Diabetes 0.65 (0.17–2.50)
Anemia 2.64 (0.74–9.44)
Arthritis 0.97 (0.37–2.49)
Liver disease 4.00 (0.36–44.10)
Cancer 2.03 (0.63–6.81)
Other fungal infections 1.69 (0.23–12.20)
Tuberculosis 3.24 (0.29–36.60)
Oral steroid use 8.11 (1.74–37.80)
Current smoker 1.00 (0.34–2.93)
Ever smoked
1.18 (0.44–3.20)
Environmental‡§
Living with 1 mile of woods 1.70 (0.17–2.02)
Outdoor building or repairing house 4.00 (1.00–16.00)
Cutting/chopping wood 0.17 (0.04–0.76)
Pruning 0.28 (0.09–0.88)
Cleaning up branches 0.29 (0.10–0.84)
Digging earth 0.93 (0.38–2.30)
Camping 1.23 (0.23–2.91)
Gardening 1.15 (0.47–2.79)

*MOR, matched odds ratio; CI, confidence interval. Boldface indicates significant risk factors.
†Includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sarcoidosis.
‡In 3 mo before symptom onset.
§Other environmental risk factors not significant at α = 0.05: animal or crop farm within 1 mile of residence; construction or landscaping activities; cleaning of buildings, eaves, troughs, or bird feeders; contact with individual tree species; visits to botanical gardens; boating; use of compost materials and bark mulch.

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