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Volume 17, Number 3—March 2011

Research

Active Tuberculosis among Homeless Persons, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998–2007

Kamran KhanComments to Author , Elizabeth Rea, Cameron McDermaid, Rebecca Stuart, Catharine Chambers, Jun Wang, Angie Chan, Michael Gardam, Frances Jamieson, Jae Yang, and Stephen W. Hwang
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (K. Khan, C. Chambers, J. Wang, A. Chan, J. Yang, S.W. Hwang); University of Toronto, Toronto (K. Khan, E. Rea, M. Gardam, F. Jamieson, S.W. Hwang); Toronto Public Health, Toronto (E. Rea, R. Stuart); City of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (C. McDermaid); University Health Network, Toronto (M. Gardam); Ontario Agency for Health Promotion and Protection, Toronto (F. Jamieson)

Main Article

Table 3

Concurrent conditions of 91 homeless persons with tuberculosis, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1998–2007*

Condition All persons, no. (%) Canada born, no. (%) Foreign born, no. (%) p value† 1998–2002, no. (%) 2003–2007, no. (%) p value‡
HIV infection 0.52 0.33
Positive 11 (12) 9 (15) 1 (4) 5 (11) 6 (13)
Negative 6 (7) 4 (7) 2 (7) 1 (2) 5 (10)
Unknown
74 (81)
47 (78)
25 (89)

38 (87)
36 (77)

Psychiatric disease§ 10 (11) 7 (12) 2 (7) 0.71 2 (5) 8 (17) 0.09
COPD 8 (9) 7 (12) 0 0.09 6 (14) 2 (4) 0.15
Liver disease¶ 29 (32) 24 (40) 4 (14) 0.03 12 (27) 17 (36) 0.38
Cancer 5 (5) 4 (7) 1 (4) 1.00 3 (7) 2 (4) 0.67
Congestive heart failure 1 (1) 0 0 1 (2) 0 0.48
Diabetes 11 (12) 5 (8) 5 (18) 0.28 1 (2) 10 (21) 0.01
Chronic alcohol abuse 29 (32) 23 (38) 6 (21) 0.15 12 (27) 17 (36) 0.38
Injection drug use 12 (13) 10 (17) 1 (4) 0.16 6 (14) 6 (13) 1.00
Noninjection drug use 6 (7) 6 (10) 0 0.17 0 6 (13) 0.03
Other 1 (1) 0 1(4) 0.32 0 1 (2) 1.00

*Birthplace information available for 88 persons.–, no statistical test performed; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
†Probability of a significant difference between Canada-born and foreign-born persons for each variable; calculated by using the 2-sided Fisher exact test or χ2 test, as appropriate.
‡Probability of a significant difference between the 2 periods for each variable; calculated by using the 2-sided Fisher exact test or χ2 test, as appropriate.
§Includes schizophrenia, severe mental illness, and dementia.
¶Includes cirrhosis, viral hepatitis B or C.

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