Serologic Surveillance of Anthrax in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania, 1996–2009
Tiziana Lembo, Katie Hampson , Harriet Auty, Cari A. Beesley, Paul Bessell, Craig Packer, Jo Halliday, Robert Fyumagwa, Richard Hoare, Eblate Ernest, Christine Mentzel, Titus Mlengeya, Karen Stamey, Patricia P. Wilkins, and Sarah Cleaveland
Author affiliations: Author affiliations: University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland (T. Lembo, K. Hampson, H. Auty, P. Bessell, S. Cleaveland); Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, Illinois, USA (T. Lembo); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (C.A. Beesley, K. Stamey, P.P. Wilkins); University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA (C. Packer); University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland (J. Halliday); Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania (R. Fyumagwa, R. Hoare, E. Ernest); Endangered Wildlife Trust, Parkview, South Africa (C. Mentzel); Tanzania National Parks, Arusha (T. Mlengeya)
Figure 2. Anthrax case detection in wildlife, livestock, and human populations in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, 1996–2009. Probable (black bars) and suspected (white bars) wildlife cases (as defined in the Materials and Methods) are shown. Black circles indicate hospital records of anthrax scaled according to the number of cases, and rectangles indicate when cases in livestock were reported (quality of the data for livestock cases was too poor to quantify). Domestic dogs were sampled in villages near wildlife cases detected in 2006. Error bars indicate mean antibody responses and 95% confidence intervals at the time of sampling; sample sizes are indicated. *During the 1998 outbreak, 549 probable cases and 67 additional suspected cases were detected. OD, optical density.
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